"Methods for Treating Inflammatory Disorders Or Cancer Metastasis by Administering Antibodies to Connexin 43 (CX43) Hemichannels" in Patent Application Approval Process (USPTO 20180179278)
By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Cancer Gene Therapy Week -- A patent application by the inventors Jiang, Jean X. (Helotes, TX); Riquelme, Manuel A. (San Antonio, TX); Gu, Sumin (San Antonio, TX), filed on February 8, 2018, was made available online on July 5, 2018, according to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by NewsRx correspondents (see also Patent Application).
This patent application has not been assigned to a company or institution.
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Bone tissues are a preferred site of breast and prostate cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis occurs in up to 75% of patients with advanced cancers. Currently, there is no cure for metastatic breast cancer and no reliable intervention drug for treating bone metastasis that has minimal side effects.
"Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease that affects approximately 20% of U.S. adults. This disease causes the degeneration of joints including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The pathology of OA is characterized by a loss of articular cartilage leading to narrowing of joint space, increased joint friction and potential structure remodeling. Current treatment includes exercise, lifestyle change and analgesics. If symptom becomes severe, joint replacement surgery is normally performed. Thus far, there is no specific pharmaceutical intervention available for the treatment of OA.
"Connexin hemichannels play important roles in the cell and tissue function, and abnormal function of connexin hemichannels is known to cause various pathological conditions. Thus, there remains a need for additional therapies for treating pathological conditions associated with hemichannels activity (e.g., inflammation, osteoarthritis, or bone metastasis), as well as methods for identifying such therapies."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "The inventors have discovered that open hemichannels in cells of metastatic targets have inhibitory effects on cancer growth, migration, and metastasis. Certain embodiments provide a tool and/or method to identify compounds that modulate opening of hemichannels for the treatment of cancer metastasis. In certain aspects the drugs can be used to inhibit or ameliorate cancer metastasis to the bone, brain, or liver. In certain aspects a hemichannel can be expressed in a bone, brain, or liver cell. In a further aspect the hemichannel can be an osteocyte hemichannel, a hepatocyte hemichannel, or an astrocyte hemichannel. In certain aspects a hemichannel can be a connexin Cx43, Cx32, Cx46, Cx37, Cx40, Cx50, Cx59, Cx62, Cx26, Cx31, Cx30.3, Cx31.1, Cx30, Cx25, Cx45, Cx47, Cx30.2, Cx36, Cx31.9, Cx39, Cx40.1, Cx23, or Cx29 hemichannel. In certain aspect the hemichannel is a Cx43 or Cx 32 hemichannel. As an example, opening of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels in osteocytes has an inhibitory effect on metastasis to the bone and can suppress bone metastasis.
"Hemichannel opening can be detected by dye uptake assays using fluorescence dyes like Lucifer yellow, ethidium bromide, Alexa 350, Alexa 485, Alexa 594 dyes, etc. The specificity of the hemichannel opening can be verified by using a connexin specific antibody that inhibits hemichannel opening and thus inhibits the activity of the target reagent. Therefore, the tools and/or methods described can be used for screening, testing, and identifying reagent(s) that open hemichannels and inhibit metastasis.
"Certain embodiments are directed to methods of identifying a compound that open hemichannels. Other embodiments are directed to methods of positively modulating the opening of hemichannels in to inhibit or ameliorate cancer metastasis.
"The present invention provides antibodies directed against a hemichannel, nucleic acids encoding such antibodies and therapeutic proteins, methods for preparing anti-hemichannel monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins, and methods for the treatment of diseases, such as metastatic cancer. In certain aspects the antibody binds an epitope having an amino acid sequence of FLSRPTEKTI (SEQ ID NO:13), KRDPCPHQVD (SEQ ID NO:14), or LSAVYTCKR (SEQ ID NO:15). In a particular aspect an antibody binds an epitope having an amino acid sequence of FLSRPTEKTI (SEQ ID NO:13).
"In one embodiment, the invention provides an isolated antibody which specifically binds to hemichannels, comprising a heavy chain having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and a light chain having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4.
"In certain aspects a first heavy chain region comprises an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 13 to 37 of SEQ ID NO:2; a second heavy chain region having an amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 46 to 66 of SEQ ID NO:2; and a third heavy chain region comprising an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 97 to 116 of SEQ ID NO:2.
"In another aspect a first light chain region comprises an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 9 to 40 of SEQ ID NO:4; a second light chain region having an amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 49 to 58 of SEQ ID NO:4; and a third light chain region comprising an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 64 to 108 of SEQ ID NO:4.
"In one embodiment, the invention provides an isolated antibody which specifically binds to hemichannels and gap junctions, comprising a heavy chain having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6 and a light chain having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.
"In certain aspects a first heavy chain region comprises an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 13 to 37 of SEQ ID NO:6; a second heavy chain region having an amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 46 to 66 of SEQ ID NO:6; and a third heavy chain region comprising an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 97 to 116 of SEQ ID NO:6.
"In another aspect a first light chain region comprises an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 9 to 42 of SEQ ID NO:8; a second light chain region having an amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 51 to 60 of SEQ ID NO:8; and a third light chain region comprising an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 66 to 125 of SEQ ID NO:8.
"In one embodiment, the invention provides an isolated antibody which specifically binds to gap junctions, comprising a heavy chain having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and a light chain having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12.
"In certain aspects a first heavy chain region comprises an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 10 to 34 of SEQ ID NO:10; a second heavy chain region having an amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 43 to 59 of SEQ ID NO:10; and a third heavy chain region comprising an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 94 to 109 of SEQ ID NO:10.
"In another aspect a first light chain region comprises an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 9 to 40 of SEQ ID NO:12; a second light chain region having an amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 49 to 58 of SEQ ID NO:12; and a third light chain region comprising an amino acid sequence having an amino acid sequence of residues 64 to 108 of SEQ ID NO:12.
"In certain aspects antibodies include full length antibodies, antibody fragments, single chain antibodies, bispecific antibodies, minibodies, domain antibodies, synthetic antibodies and antibody fusions, and fragments thereof.
"A further embodiment provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an antibody as described herein with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Also provided is an antibody or a pharmaceutical composition of the invention for use as a medicament or for use in therapy for cancer and to inhibit cancer metastasis.
"A further embodiment provides a method of treating or preventing cancer metastasis. A method of treating can comprise administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of an isolated antibody described herein. Also provided is the use of an antibody as described herein in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment or prevention of cancer metastasis.
"Certain aspects are directed to in vitro methods of using an antibody, compounds or reagents to suppress inflammatory reactions in chondrocytes. In certain aspects methods are directed to determining the effect on inhibition of Cx43 hemichannel opening in chondrocytes by (i) determining hemichannel opening by dye uptake assay, using Lucifer yellow or Alexa dyes, (ii) assessing inhibitory effects on hemichannels opening by IL-1.beta., (iii) test inhibitory effects of the reagents on hemichannels opening by mechanical loading in the form of fluid flow shear stress.
"Certain aspects are directed to methods of determining the effect of an antibody, compounds or reagents on suppressing of inflammatory responses evoked by IL-1.beta. and mechanical loading by (i) determining the inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-.kappa.B) induced by IL-1.beta. (ii) determining the inhibition of activation of NF-.kappa.B induced by fluid flow shear stress.
"Other aspects are directed to an in vivo method of using a monoclonal antibody, compounds or reagents to treat OA or identify the same comprising (i) injecting antibody, compound or reagent into knee cap cavity, (ii) assessing the inhibition of activation of NF-.kappa.B induced by IL-1.beta., (iii) assessing OA development by X-ray, histological analysis and physical movement.
"As used herein, the term 'antigen' is a molecule capable of being bound by an antibody or T-cell receptor. In certain embodiments, binding moieties other than antibodies and be engineered to specifically bind to an antigen, e.g., aptamers, avimers, and the like.
"The term 'antibody' or 'immunoglobulin' is used to include intact antibodies and binding fragments/segments thereof. Typically, fragments compete with the intact antibody from which they were derived for specific binding to an antigen. Fragments include separate heavy chains, light chains, Fab, Fab' F(ab')2, Fabc, and Fv. Fragments/segments are produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or by enzymatic or chemical separation of intact immunoglobulins. The term 'antibody' also includes one or more immunoglobulin chains that are chemically conjugated to, or expressed as, fusion proteins with other proteins. The term 'antibody' also includes bispecific antibodies. A bispecific or bifunctional antibody is an artificial hybrid antibody having two different heavy/light chain pairs and two different binding sites. Bispecific antibodies can be produced by a variety of methods including fusion of hybridomas or linking of Fab' fragments. See, e.g., Songsivilai and Lachmann, Clin Exp Immunol 79:315-21, 1990; Kostelny et al., J. Immunol. 148:1547-53, 1992.
"The term 'isolated' can refer to a nucleic acid or polypeptide that is substantially free of cellular material, bacterial material, viral material, or culture medium (when produced by recombinant DNA techniques) of their source of origin, or chemical precursors or other chemicals (when chemically synthesized). Moreover, an isolated compound refers to one that can be administered to a subject as an isolated compound; in other words, the compound may not simply be considered 'isolated' if it is adhered to a column or embedded in an agarose gel. Moreover, an 'isolated nucleic acid fragment' or 'isolated peptide' is a nucleic acid or protein fragment that is not naturally occurring as a fragment and/or is not typically in the functional state.
"Moieties of the invention, such as polypeptides, peptides, antigens, or immunogens, may be conjugated or linked covalently or noncovalently to other moieties such as adjuvants, proteins, peptides, supports, fluorescence moieties, or labels. The term 'conjugate' or 'immunoconjugate' is broadly used to define the operative association of one moiety with another agent and is not intended to refer solely to any type of operative association, and is particularly not limited to chemical 'conjugation.'
"The term 'providing' is used according to its ordinary meaning 'to supply or furnish for use.' In some embodiments, the protein is provided directly by administering the protein, while in other embodiments, the protein is effectively provided by administering a nucleic acid that encodes the protein. In certain aspects the invention contemplates compositions comprising various combinations of nucleic acid, antigens, peptides, and/or epitopes.
"The phrase 'specifically binds' or 'specifically immunoreactive' to a target refers to a binding reaction that is determinative of the presence of the molecule in the presence of a heterogeneous population of other biologics. Thus, under designated immunoassay conditions, a specified molecule binds preferentially to a particular target and does not bind in a significant amount to other biologics present in the sample. Specific binding of an antibody to a target under such conditions requires the antibody be selected for its specificity to the target. A variety of immunoassay formats may be used to select antibodies specifically immunoreactive with a particular protein. For example, solid-phase ELISA immunoassays are routinely used to select monoclonal antibodies specifically immunoreactive with a protein. See, e.g., Harlow and Lane, Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1988, for a description of immunoassay formats and conditions that can be used to determine specific immunoreactivity.
"Other embodiments of the invention are discussed throughout this application. Any embodiment discussed with respect to one aspect of the invention applies to other aspects of the invention as well and vice versa. Each embodiment described herein is understood to be embodiments of the invention that are applicable to all aspects of the invention. It is contemplated that any embodiment discussed herein can be implemented with respect to any method or composition of the invention, and vice versa. Furthermore, compositions and kits of the invention can be used to achieve methods of the invention.
"The use of the word 'a' or 'an' when used in conjunction with the term 'comprising' in the claims and/or the specification may mean 'one,' but it is also consistent with the meaning of 'one or more,' 'at least one,' and 'one or more than one.'
"Throughout this application, the term 'about' is used to indicate that a value includes the standard deviation of error for the device or method being employed to determine the value.
"The use of the term 'or' in the claims is used to mean 'and/or' unless explicitly indicated to refer to alternatives only or the alternatives are mutually exclusive, although the disclosure supports a definition that refers to only alternatives and 'and/or.'
"As used in this specification and claim(s), the words 'comprising' (and any form of comprising, such as 'comprise' and 'comprises'), 'having' (and any form of having, such as 'have' and 'has'), 'including' (and any form of including, such as 'includes' and 'include') or 'containing' (and any form of containing, such as 'contains' and 'contain') are inclusive or open-ended and do not exclude additional, unrecited elements or method steps.
"Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description. It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and the specific examples, while indicating specific embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description."
URL and more information on this patent application, see: Jiang, Jean X.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Gu, Sumin. Methods for Treating Inflammatory Disorders Or Cancer Metastasis by Administering Antibodies to Connexin 43 (CX43) Hemichannels. Filed February 8, 2018 and posted July 5, 2018. Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220180179278%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20180179278&RS=DN/20180179278
Keywords for this news article include: Biotechnology, Cancer, Genetics, Oncology, Peptides, Immunology, NF-kappa B, Proteomics, Amino Acids, Connexin 43, Immunoassay, Bone Research, Blood Proteins, Immunoproteins, Osteoarthritis, Immunoglobulins, Serum Globulins, Carrier Proteins, Nuclear Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Patent Application, Health and Medicine.
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