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Patterns in Invoicing Currency in Global Trade

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08/03/2020 | 08:36am EDT


Emine Boz ; Camila Casas ; Georgios Georgiadis ; Gita Gopinath ; Helena Le Mezo ; Arnaud Mehl ; Tra Nguyen

Publication Date:

July 17, 2020

Electronic Access:

Free Download. Use the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this PDF file

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Disclaimer: IMF Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to encourage debate. The views expressed in IMF Working Papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.


This paper presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date panel data set of invoicing currencies in global trade. It provides data on the shares of exports and imports invoiced in US dollars, euros, and other currencies for more than 100 countries since 1990. The evidence from these data confirms findings from earlier research regarding the globally dominant role of the US dollar in invoicing - despite the comparatively smaller role of the US in global trade - and the overall stability of invoicing currency patterns. The evidence also points to several novel facts. First, both the US dollar and the euro have been increasingly used for invoicing even as the share of global trade accounted for by the US and the euro area has declined. Second, the euro is used as a vehicle currency in parts of Africa, and some European countries have seen significant shifts toward euro invoicing. Third, as suggested by the dominant currency paradigm, countries invoicing more in US dollars (euros) tend to experience greater US dollar (euro) exchange rate pass-through to their import prices; also, their trade volumes are more sensitive to fluctuations in these exchange rates.


IMF - International Monetary Fund published this content on 17 July 2020 and is solely responsible for the information contained therein. Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 03 August 2020 12:36:11 UTC

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