The appointment of Ducholet, who joined SocGen in 1985, comes just a few days after SocGen appointed its investment banking boss Slawomir Krupa as group chief executive.
Krupa takes the helm of Societe Generale amid risks of a global recession and a crippling European energy crisis.
Like many rival European banks, SocGen has also struggled to restore profitability since the 2008 financial crisis.
Ducholet has worked in various roles at SocGen including in structured finance, real estate, commodities, equipment finance and investment banking.
(Reporting by Sudip Kar-Gupta, Editing by Louise Heavens)