Aramco's net profit rose to 181.64 billion riyals ($48.39 billion) for the quarter to June 30 from 95.47 billion riyals a year earlier.
Analysts had expected a net profit of $46.2 billion, according to the mean estimate from 15 analysts.
It declared a dividend of $18.8 billion in the second quarter, in line with its own target, which will be paid in the third quarter.
($1 = 3.7540 riyals)
(Reporting by Hadeel Al Sayegh; Editing by Kirsten Donovan)