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OFFON

SNOWFLAKE INC.

(SNOW)
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SNOWFLAKE : MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (form 10-K)

03/31/2021 | 04:16pm EDT
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of
operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial
statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form
10-K. This discussion, particularly information with respect to our future
results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and
objectives of management for future operations, includes forward-looking
statements that involve risks and uncertainties as described under the heading
"Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements" in this Annual Report on Form
10-K. You should review the disclosure under the heading "Risk Factors" in this
Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could
cause our actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in these
forward-looking statements.

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this report to "Snowflake," the "Company", "we," "our," "us," or similar terms refer to Snowflake Inc. and its subsidiaries.


A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the
fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31,
2020 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and
results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 compared to the
fiscal year ended January 31, 2019 can be found in "Management's Discussion and
Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Final
Prospectus dated September 15, 2020 and filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule
424(b)(4) on September 16, 2020.

Overview

We believe in a data connected world where organizations have seamless access to
explore, share, and unlock the value of data. To realize this vision, we deliver
the Data Cloud, an ecosystem where Snowflake customers, partners, data
providers, and data consumers can break down data silos and derive value from
rapidly growing data sets in secure, governed, and compliant ways.

Our platform is the innovative technology that powers the Data Cloud, enabling
customers to consolidate data into a single source of truth to drive meaningful
business insights, build data-driven applications, and share data. We provide
our platform through a customer-centric, consumption-based business model, only
charging customers for the resources they use.

Our cloud-native architecture consists of three independently scalable layers
across storage, compute, and cloud services. The storage layer ingests massive
amounts and varieties of structured and semi-structured data to create a unified
data record. The compute layer provides dedicated resources to enable users to
simultaneously access common data sets for many use cases without latency. The
cloud services layer intelligently optimizes each use case's performance
requirements with no administration. This architecture is built on three major
public clouds across 23 regional deployments around the world. These deployments
are interconnected to deliver the Data Cloud, enabling a consistent, global user
experience.

We generate the substantial majority of our revenue from fees charged to our
customers based on the storage, compute, and data transfer resources consumed on
our platform as a single, integrated offering. For storage resources,
consumption fees are based on the average terabytes per month of all of the
customer's data stored in our platform. For compute resources, consumption fees
are based on the type of compute resource used and the duration of use or, for
some features, the volume of data processed. For data transfer resources,
consumption fees are based on terabytes of data transferred, the public cloud
provider used, and the region to and from which the transfer is executed.

Our customers typically enter into capacity arrangements with a term of one to
four years, or consume our platform under on-demand arrangements in which we
charge for use of our platform monthly in arrears. Consumption for most
customers accelerates from the beginning of their usage to the end of their
contract terms and often exceeds their initial capacity commitment amounts. When
this occurs, our customers have the option to amend their existing agreement
with us to purchase additional capacity or request early renewals. When a
customer's consumption during the contract term does not exceed its capacity
commitment amount, it may have the option to roll over any unused capacity to
future periods, generally on the purchase of additional capacity. For these
reasons, we believe our deferred revenue is not a meaningful indicator of future
revenue that will be recognized in any given time period.
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Our go-to-market strategy is focused on acquiring new customers and driving
continued use of our platform for existing customers. We primarily focus our
selling efforts on large organizations and primarily sell our platform through a
direct sales force, which targets technical and business leaders who are
adopting a cloud strategy and leveraging data to improve their business
performance. Our sales organization is comprised of sales development, inside
sales, and field sales personnel and is segmented by the size, region, and
recently, industry of prospective customers. Once our platform has been adopted,
we focus on increasing the migration of additional customer workloads to our
platform to drive increased consumption, as evidenced by our net revenue
retention rate, which exceeded 165% as of January 31, 2021 and 2020.

Our platform is used globally by organizations of all sizes across a broad range
of industries. As of January 31, 2021, we had 4,139 total customers, increasing
from 2,392 customers as of January 31, 2020. Our platform has been adopted by
many of the world's largest organizations that view Snowflake as a key strategic
partner in their cloud and data transformation initiatives. As of January 31,
2021, our customers included 186 of the Fortune 500, based on the 2020 Fortune
500 list, and those customers contributed approximately 27% of our revenue for
the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021. Our Fortune 500 customer count is
subject to adjustments for annual updates to the Fortune 500 list by Fortune, as
well as acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other market activity with
respect to such customers.
Initial Public Offering and Private Placements
In September 2020, we completed our initial public offering (IPO) in which we
issued and sold 32,200,000 shares of our Class A common stock at $120.00 per
share, including 4,200,000 shares issued upon the exercise of the underwriters'
option to purchase additional shares. We received net proceeds of $3.7 billion
after deducting underwriting discounts. In connection with the IPO:
•all 182,271,099 shares of our outstanding redeemable convertible preferred
stock automatically converted into an equivalent number of shares of Class B
common stock on a one-to-one basis; and
•Salesforce Ventures LLC and Berkshire Hathaway Inc. each purchased 2,083,333
shares of our Class A common stock at $120.00 per share in concurrent private
placements that closed immediately subsequent to the closing of the IPO. We
received aggregate proceeds of $500.0 million in these concurrent private
placements and did not pay underwriting discounts with respect to the shares of
Class A common stock that were sold in these private placements.

On March 1, 2021, all shares of our then-outstanding Class B common stock were
automatically converted into the same number of shares of Class A common stock
pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
See Note 16, Subsequent Events, in the notes to our consolidated financial
statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for further
details.

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Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Adoption of our Platform and Expansion of the Data Cloud
Our future success depends in large part on the market adoption of our platform.
While we see growing demand for our platform, particularly from large
enterprises, many of these organizations have invested substantial technical,
financial, and personnel resources in their legacy database products or big data
offerings, despite their inherent limitations. While this makes it difficult to
predict customer adoption rates and future demand, we believe that the benefits
of our platform put us in a strong position to capture the significant market
opportunity ahead.

Our platform powers the Data Cloud, an ecosystem of data providers, data
consumers, and data application developers that enables our customers to
securely share, connect, collaborate, monetize, and acquire live data sets. Our
future growth will be increasingly dependent on our ability to increase
consumption of our platform by building and expanding this ecosystem and the
types and quality of data available on the Data Cloud.
Expanding Within our Existing Customer Base
Our large base of customers represents a significant opportunity for further
consumption of our platform. While we have seen a rapid increase in the number
of customers that have contributed more than $1 million in product revenue in
the trailing 12 months, we believe that there is a substantial opportunity to
continue growing these customers further, as well as continuing to expand the
usage of our platform within our other existing customers. We plan to continue
investing in our direct sales force to encourage increased consumption and
adoption of new use cases among our existing customers.

Once deployed, our customers often expand their use of our platform more broadly
within the enterprise and across their ecosystem of customers and partners as
they migrate more data to the public cloud, identify new use cases, and realize
the benefits of our platform and the Data Cloud. However, because we generally
recognize product revenue on consumption and not ratably over the term of the
contract, we do not have visibility into the timing of revenue recognition from
any particular customer. In any given period, there is a risk that customer
consumption of our platform will be slower than we expect, which may cause
fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations. New software releases or
hardware improvements may make our platform more efficient, enabling customers
to consume fewer compute, storage, and data transfer resources to accomplish the
same workloads. Our ability to increase usage of our platform by, and sell
additional contracted capacity to, existing customers, and, in particular, large
enterprise customers, will depend on a number of factors, including our
customers' satisfaction with our platform, competition, pricing, overall changes
in our customers' spending levels, the effectiveness of our efforts to help our
customers realize the benefits of our platform, and the extent to which
customers migrate new workloads to our platform over time.
Acquiring New Customers
We believe there is a substantial opportunity to further grow our customer base
by continuing to make significant investments in sales and marketing and brand
awareness. Our ability to attract new customers will depend on a number of
factors, including our success in recruiting and scaling our sales and marketing
organization, competitive dynamics in our target markets, and our ability to
build and maintain partner relationships, including with global system
integrators, resellers, and technology partners. We intend to expand our direct
sales force, with a focus on increasing sales to large organizations. While our
platform is built for organizations of all sizes and industries, we have only
recently focused our selling efforts on large enterprise customers. We may not
achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force to focus on
large enterprises if we are unable to hire, develop, integrate, and retain
talented and effective sales personnel; if our new and existing sales personnel
are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of
time; or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.
Investing in Growth and Scaling our Business
We are focused on our long-term revenue potential. We believe that our market
opportunity is large, and we will continue to invest significantly in scaling
across all organizational functions in order to grow our operations both
domestically and internationally. We have a history of introducing successful
new features and capabilities on our platform, and we intend to continue to
invest heavily to grow our business to take advantage of our expansive market
opportunity rather than optimize for profitability or cash flow in the near
future.

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Key Business Metrics
We monitor the key business metrics set forth below to help us evaluate our
business and growth trends, establish budgets, measure the effectiveness of our
sales and marketing efforts, and assess operational efficiencies. The
calculation of the key business metrics discussed below may differ from other
similarly titled metrics used by other companies, securities analysts, or
investors.
Product Revenue
Product revenue is a key metric for us because we recognize revenue based on
platform consumption, which is inherently variable at our customers' discretion,
and not based on the amount and duration of contract terms. Product revenue
includes compute, storage, and data transfer resources, which are consumed by
customers on our platform as a single, integrated offering. Customers have the
flexibility to consume more than their contracted capacity during the contract
term and may have the ability to roll over unused capacity to future periods,
generally on the purchase of additional capacity at renewal. Our
consumption-based business model distinguishes us from subscription-based
software companies that generally recognize revenue ratably over the contract
term and may not permit rollover. Because customers have flexibility in the
timing of their consumption, which can exceed their contracted capacity or
extend beyond the original contract term in many cases, the amount of product
revenue recognized in a given period is an important indicator of customer
satisfaction and the value derived from our platform. While customer use of our
platform in any period is not necessarily indicative of future use, we estimate
future revenue using predictive models based on customers' historical usage to
plan and determine financial forecasts. Product revenue excludes our
professional services and other revenue, which has been less than 10% of revenue
for each of the periods presented.
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations (RPO) represent the amount of contracted
future revenue that has not yet been recognized, including both deferred revenue
and non-cancelable contracted amounts that will be invoiced and recognized as
revenue in future periods. RPO excludes performance obligations from on-demand
arrangements and certain time and materials contracts that are billed in
arrears. RPO is not necessarily indicative of future product revenue growth
because it does not account for the timing of customers' consumption or their
consumption of more than their contracted capacity. Moreover, RPO is influenced
by a number of factors, including the timing of renewals, the timing of
purchases of additional capacity, average contract terms, seasonality, and the
extent to which customers are permitted to roll over unused capacity to future
periods, generally upon the purchase of additional capacity at renewal. Due to
these factors, it is important to review RPO in conjunction with product revenue
and other financial metrics disclosed elsewhere herein.
Total Customers
We count the total number of customers at the end of each period. For purposes
of determining our customer count, we treat each customer account, including
accounts for end-customers under a reseller arrangement, that has at least one
corresponding capacity contract as a unique customer, and a single organization
with multiple divisions, segments, or subsidiaries may be counted as multiple
customers. For purposes of determining our customer count, we do not include
customers that consume our platform only under on-demand arrangements. Our
customer count is subject to adjustments for acquisitions, consolidations,
spin-offs, and other market activity. We believe that the number of customers is
an important indicator of the growth of our business and future revenue trends.
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Net Revenue Retention Rate
We believe the growth in use of our platform by our existing customers is an
important measure of the health of our business and our future growth prospects.
We monitor our dollar-based net revenue retention rate to measure this growth.
To calculate this metric, we first specify a measurement period consisting of
the trailing two years from our current period end. Next, we define as our
measurement cohort the population of customers under capacity contracts that
used our platform at any point in the first month of the first year of the
measurement period. We then calculate our net revenue retention rate as the
quotient obtained by dividing our product revenue from this cohort in the second
year of the measurement period by our product revenue from this cohort in the
first year of the measurement period. Any customer in the cohort that did not
use our platform in the second year remains in the calculation and contributes
zero product revenue in the second year. Our net revenue retention rate is
subject to adjustments for acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other
market activity. Since we will continue to attribute the historical product
revenue to the consolidated contract, consolidation of capacity contracts within
a customer's organization typically will not impact our net revenue retention
rate unless one of those customers was not a customer at any point in the first
month of the first year of the measurement period. We expect our net revenue
retention rate to decrease over time as customers that have consumed our
platform for an extended period of time become a larger portion of both our
overall customer base and our product revenue that we use to calculate net
revenue retention rate, and as their consumption growth primarily relates to
existing use cases rather than new use cases.
Customers with Trailing 12-Month Product Revenue Greater than $1 Million
Large customer relationships lead to scale and operating leverage in our
business model. Compared with smaller customers, large customers present a
greater opportunity for us to sell additional capacity because they have larger
budgets, a wider range of potential use cases, and greater potential for
migrating new workloads to our platform over time. As a measure of our ability
to scale with our customers and attract large enterprises to our platform, we
count the number of customers under capacity arrangements that contributed more
than $1 million in product revenue in the trailing 12 months. Our customer count
is subject to adjustments for acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other
market activity.

                                        Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                               2021                                      2020         2019

Product revenue (in millions)    $                        553.8                        $ 252.2      $ 95.7




                                                January 31, 2021                           January 31, 2020         January 31, 2019

Remaining performance obligations (in
millions)(1)                                   $       1,332.8                            $        426.3           $        128.0
Total customers                                          4,139                                     2,392                      948
Net revenue retention rate                                 168  %                                    169  %                   180  %
Customers with trailing 12-month product
revenue greater than $1 million                             77                                        41                       14

________________

(1)As of January 31, 2021, our RPO was approximately $1.3 billion, of which we
expect approximately 55% to be recognized as revenue in the twelve months ending
January 31, 2022 based on historical customer consumption patterns and revenue
results. The weighted-average remaining life of our contracts was 1.9 years as
of January 31, 2021. However, the amount and timing of revenue recognition are
generally driven by customers' consumption, which is inherently variable at our
customers' discretion and can extend beyond the original contract term in cases
where customers are permitted to roll over unused capacity to future periods,
generally upon the purchase of additional capacity at renewal. In addition, our
historical customer consumption patterns and revenue results are not necessarily
indicative of future results.
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Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused general business disruption worldwide beginning
in January 2020. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, including any
new strains or mutations, will directly or indirectly impact our business,
results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition will depend on future
developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted.
Although our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition were not
adversely impacted in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we have
experienced, and may continue to experience, an adverse impact on certain parts
of our business as a result of governmental restrictions and other measures to
mitigate the spread of COVID-19, including a lengthening of the sales cycle for
some prospective customers and delays in the delivery of professional services
and trainings to our customers. We have also experienced, and may continue to
experience, a modest positive impact on other aspects of our business, including
an increase in consumption of our platform by existing customers. Moreover,
during the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we saw slower growth in certain
operating expenses due to reduced business travel, deferred hiring for some
positions, and the virtualization or cancellation of customer, partner, and
employee events. While a reduction in operating expenses had a positive impact
on our results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we do
not yet have visibility into the full impact this will have on our business. We
cannot predict how long we will continue to experience these impacts as
shelter-in-place orders and other related measures are expected to change over
time, and the availability, efficacy, and acceptance of vaccines or other
preventative measures is unclear. However, if our customers or partners
experience downturns or uncertainty in their own business operations or revenue
resulting from the spread or resurgence of COVID-19, they may decrease or delay
their spending, request pricing discounts, or seek renegotiations of their
contracts, any of which may result in decreased revenue and cash receipts for us
in future periods. In addition, we may experience customer losses, including due
to bankruptcy or our customers ceasing operations, which may result in an
inability to collect accounts receivable from these customers.

In addition, in response to the spread of COVID-19, we have required virtually
all of our employees to work remotely to minimize the risk of the virus to our
employees and the communities in which we operate, and we may take further
actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in
the best interests of our employees, customers, and business partners. Although
we expect most of our employees to return to physical offices in the future, the
nature and extent of that return is uncertain. Given the uncertainty regarding
the length, severity, and ability to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot
reasonably estimate the impact on our future results of operations, cash flows,
or financial condition. For additional details, see the section titled "Risk
Factors."

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Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We deliver our platform over the internet as a service. Customers choose to
consume our platform under either capacity arrangements, in which they commit to
a certain amount of consumption at specified prices, or under on-demand
arrangements, in which we charge for use of our platform monthly in arrears.
Under capacity arrangements, from which a majority of our revenue is derived, we
typically bill our customers annually in advance of their consumption. However,
in future periods, we expect to see an increase in capacity contracts providing
for quarterly upfront billings and monthly in arrears billings as our customers
increasingly want to align consumption and timing of payments. Revenue from
on-demand arrangements typically relates to initial consumption as part of
customer onboarding and, to a lesser extent, overage consumption beyond a
customer's contracted usage amount or following the expiration of a customer's
contract. Revenue from on-demand arrangements represented 4%, 4%, and 5% of our
revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019,
respectively.

We recognize revenue as customers consume compute, storage, and data transfer
resources under either of these arrangements. In limited instances, customers
pay an annual deployment fee to gain access to a dedicated instance of a virtual
private deployment. We recognize the deployment fee ratably over the contract
term. Such deployment revenue represented approximately 1% of our revenue for
all periods presented.

Our customer contracts for capacity typically have a term of one to four years.
The weighted-average term of capacity contracts entered into during the fiscal
year ended January 31, 2021 is 2.1 years. To the extent our customers enter into
such contracts and either consume our platform in excess of their capacity
commitments or continue to use our platform after expiration of the contract
term, they are charged for their incremental consumption. In many cases, our
customer contracts permit customers to roll over any unused capacity to a
subsequent order, generally on the purchase of additional capacity. For those
customers who do not have a capacity arrangement, our on-demand arrangements
generally have a monthly stated contract term and can be terminated at any time
by either the customer or us.

We generate the substantial majority of our revenue from fees charged to our
customers based on the storage, compute, and data transfer resources consumed on
our platform as a single, integrated offering. We do not make any one of these
resources available for consumption without the others. Instead, each of
compute, storage, and data transfer work together to drive consumption on our
platform. For storage resources, consumption for a given customer is based on
the average terabytes per month of all of such customer's data stored in our
platform. For compute resources, consumption is based on the type of compute
resource used and the duration of use or, for some features, the volume of data
processed. For data transfer resources, consumption is based on terabytes of
data transferred, the public cloud provider used, and the region to and from
which the transfer is executed.

Because customers have flexibility in their consumption, and we generally
recognize revenue on consumption and not ratably over the term of the contract,
we do not have the visibility into the timing of revenue recognition from any
particular customer contract that typical subscription-based software companies
may have. As our customer base grows, we expect our ability to forecast customer
consumption in the aggregate will improve. However, in any given period, there
is a risk that customers will consume our platform more slowly than we expect,
which may cause fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations.

Our revenue also includes professional services and other revenue, which
consists of consulting, on-site technical solution services, and training
related to our platform. Our professional services revenue is recognized over
time based on input measures, including time and materials costs incurred
relative to total costs, with consideration given to output measures, such as
contract deliverables, when applicable. Other revenue consists of fees from
customer training delivered on-site or through publicly available classes.
Allocation of Overhead Costs
Overhead costs that are not substantially dedicated for use by a specific
functional group are allocated based on headcount. Such costs include costs
associated with office facilities, depreciation of property and equipment, and
information technology (IT) related personnel and other expenses, such as
software and subscription services.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists of cost of product revenue and cost of professional
services and other revenue. Cost of revenue also includes allocated overhead
costs.
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Cost of product revenue. Cost of product revenue consists primarily of (i)
third-party cloud infrastructure expenses incurred in connection with our
customers' use of our platform and the deployment and maintenance of our
platform on public clouds, including different regional deployments, and (ii)
personnel-related costs associated with customer support and maintaining service
availability and security of our platform, including salaries, benefits,
bonuses, and stock-based compensation. We periodically receive credits from
third-party cloud providers that are recorded as a reduction to the third-party
cloud infrastructure expenses. Cost of product revenue also includes
amortization of internal-use software development costs, amortization of
acquired developed technology intangible assets, and expenses associated with
software and subscription services dedicated for use by our customer support
team and our engineering team responsible for maintaining our platform.

Cost of professional services and other revenue. Cost of professional services
and other revenue consists primarily of personnel-related costs associated with
our professional services and training departments, including salaries,
benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation, and costs of contracted
third-party partners and software tools.

We intend to continue to invest additional resources in our platform
infrastructure and our customer support and professional services organizations
to support the growth of our business. Some of these investments, including
certain support costs and costs of expanding our business internationally, are
incurred in advance of generating revenue, and either the failure to generate
anticipated revenue or fluctuations in the timing of revenue could affect our
gross margin from period to period.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development,
and general and administrative expenses. Personnel costs are the most
significant component of operating expenses and consist of salaries, benefits,
bonuses, stock-based compensation, and sales commissions. Operating expenses
also include allocated overhead costs.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses
associated with our sales and marketing staff, including salaries, benefits,
bonuses, and stock-based compensation. Sales and marketing expenses also include
draws and sales commissions paid to our sales force and referral fees paid to
independent third parties, including amortization of deferred commissions. Prior
to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we primarily amortized sales
commissions over a period of benefit that we determined to be five years as they
were earned on new customer or expansion of existing customer contracts. As a
result of modifications to our sales compensation plan during the fiscal year
ended January 31, 2021, we now expense a portion of these sales commissions in
the period earned, as they are earned based on the rate of our customers'
consumption of our platform, which we expect will accelerate our sales and
marketing expenses in the near term. The remaining portion of the sales
commissions is earned upon origination of the new customer or customer expansion
contract and is deferred and amortized over the period of benefit, which we
determined to be five years. Sales and marketing expenses also include
advertising costs and other expenses associated with our marketing and business
development programs, including Summit, our annual user conference, offset by
proceeds from such conferences and programs. In addition, sales and marketing
expenses are comprised of travel-related expenses, software and subscription
services dedicated for use by our sales and marketing organizations, and outside
services contracted for sales and marketing purposes. We expect that our sales
and marketing expenses will increase in absolute dollars and continue to be our
largest operating expense for the foreseeable future as we grow our business.
However, we expect that our sales and marketing expenses will decrease as a
percentage of our revenue over time.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related
expenses associated with our research and development staff, including salaries,
benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. Research and development
expenses also include contractor or professional services fees, third-party
cloud infrastructure expenses incurred in developing our platform, and computer
equipment, software, and subscription services dedicated for use by our research
and development organization. We expect that our research and development
expenses will increase in absolute dollars as our business grows, particularly
as we incur additional costs related to continued investments in our platform.
However, we expect that our research and development expenses will decrease as a
percentage of our revenue over time. In addition, research and development
expenses that qualify as internal-use software development costs are
capitalized, the amount of which may fluctuate significantly from period to
period.
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General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related
expenses for our finance, legal, human resources, facilities, and administrative
personnel, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation.
General and administrative expenses also include external legal, accounting, and
other professional services fees, software and subscription services dedicated
for use by our general and administrative functions, insurance and other
corporate expenses.

As a result of the closing of our IPO, we have incurred and expect to continue
to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company,
including costs to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies
listed on a national securities exchange, costs related to compliance and
reporting obligations, and increased expenses for insurance, investor relations,
and professional services. We expect that our general and administrative
expenses will increase in absolute dollars as our business grows but will
decrease as a percentage of our revenue over time.
Interest Income
Interest income consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash
equivalents and short-term and long-term investments, net of associated fees.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net consists primarily of the effect of exchange rates
on our foreign currency-denominated asset and liability balances.
Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes consists primarily of income taxes in
certain foreign and U.S. state jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We
maintain a full valuation allowance against our U.S. and U.K. deferred tax
assets because we have concluded that it is more likely than not that the
deferred tax assets will not be realized.

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Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data
for the periods indicated (in thousands):
                                          Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                      2021            2020            2019

Revenue                                           $  592,049      $  264,748      $   96,666
Cost of revenue(1)                                   242,588         116,557          51,753
Gross profit                                         349,461         148,191          44,913
Operating expenses(1):
Sales and marketing                                  479,317         293,577         125,642
Research and development                             237,946         105,160          68,681
General and administrative                           176,135         107,542          36,055
Total operating expenses                             893,398         506,279         230,378
Operating loss                                      (543,937)       (358,088)       (185,465)
Interest income                                        7,507          11,551           8,759
Other expense, net                                      (610)         (1,005)           (502)
Loss before income taxes                            (537,040)       (347,542)       (177,208)
Provision for income taxes                             2,062             993             820
Net loss                                          $ (539,102)     $ (348,535)     $ (178,028)


________________

(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows (in thousands):

                                                        Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                                      2021           2020          2019

Cost of revenue                                                    $  33,642      $  3,650      $  1,895
Sales and marketing                                                   97,879        20,757        15,647
Research and development                                              99,223        15,743        28,284
General and administrative                                            70,697        38,249         6,912
Total stock-based compensation expense                             $ 

301,441 $ 78,399 $ 52,738




During the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we began recognizing, using an
accelerated attribution method, stock-based compensation expense associated with
our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the performance-based vesting condition
applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in
September 2020. We recognized stock-based compensation expense of $178.7 million
associated with such RSUs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
Stock-based compensation expense for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2019
included $30.3 million of compensation expense related to the amount paid in
excess of the estimated fair value of common stock at the date of transaction in
connection with two issuer tender offers.
See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this
Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

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The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data
expressed as a percentage of revenue for the periods indicated:
                                              Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                                     2021        2020        2019

Revenue                                                              100  %      100  %      100  %
Cost of revenue                                                       41          44          54
Gross profit                                                          59          56          46
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing                                                   81         111         130
Research and development                                              40          40          71
General and administrative                                            30          41          37
Total operating expenses                                             151         192         238
Operating loss                                                       (92)       (136)       (192)
Interest income                                                        1           4           9
Other expense, net                                                     -           -           -
Loss before income taxes                                             (91)       (132)       (183)
Provision for income taxes                                             -           -           1
Net loss                                                              (91%)      (132%)      (184%)



Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended January 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenue
                                                              Fiscal Year Ended
                                                                 January 31,
                                                                        2021                     2020                    % Change

                                                            (dollars in thousands)
Revenue:
Product                                                            $    553,794          $             252,229                   120%
Professional services and other                                          38,255                         12,519                   206%
Total                                                              $    592,049          $             264,748                   124%
Percentage of revenue:
Product                                                                        94%                         95%
Professional services and other                                                 6%                          5%
Total                                                                         100%                        100%



Product revenue increased $301.6 million for the fiscal year ended January 31,
2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to
increased consumption of our platform by existing customers, as evidenced by our
net revenue retention rate of 168% as of January 31, 2021. The increase in
product revenue was also driven by an increase in capacity sales prices of
approximately 8% for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, compared to the
prior fiscal year, primarily as a result of better discipline over discounting.
We had 77 customers with product revenue of greater than $1 million for the
trailing 12 months ended January 31, 2021, an increase from 41 customers as of
January 31, 2020. Such customers represented approximately 47% of our product
revenue for each of the trailing 12 months ended January 31, 2021 and
January 31, 2020. Approximately 89% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 was derived from existing customers under capacity
arrangements, and approximately 7% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 was derived from new customers under capacity arrangements. The
remainder was driven by on-demand arrangements. As described in the section
titled "Impact of COVID-19," we have experienced impacts from the COVID-19
pandemic, including the elongation of sales cycles, that may impact new customer
acquisition, the timing of future revenue recognition, and our future growth
rates. We continue to carefully monitor the impact of COVID-19 on product
revenue, customer acquisitions, and net revenue retention rates.

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Professional services and other revenue increased $25.7 million for the fiscal
year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year as we expanded our
professional services organization to help our customers further realize the
benefits of our platform.
Cost of Revenue, Gross Profit (Loss), and Gross Margin
                                                               Fiscal Year Ended
                                                                  January 31,
                                                                         2021                     2020                   % Change

                                                             (dollars in thousands)
Cost of revenue:
Product                                                            $    193,835           $             96,622                   101%
Professional services and other                                          48,753                         19,935                   145%
Total cost of revenue                                              $    242,588           $            116,557                   108%
Gross profit (loss):
Product                                                            $    359,959           $            155,607
Professional services and other                                         (10,498)                       (7,416)
Total gross profit                                                 $    349,461           $            148,191
Gross margin:
Product                                                                      65  %                         62%
Professional services and other                                             (27  %)                      (59%)
Total gross margin                                                           59  %                         56%
Headcount (at period end)
Product                                                                         154                         81
Professional services and other                                                 185                         84
Total headcount                                                                 339                        165



Cost of product revenue increased $97.2 million for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The
increase was primarily due to an increase of $63.0 million in third-party cloud
infrastructure expenses and, to a lesser extent, increased headcount, which
resulted in an increase of $28.6 million in personnel-related costs and
allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to
the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an
increase of $15.9 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the
recognition of $11.9 million in stock-based compensation expense using an
accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the
performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon
the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. Additionally, amortization of
internal-use software development costs increased $2.0 million for the fiscal
year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year.

Cost of professional services and other revenue increased $28.8 million for the
fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily
due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of $28.1 million in
personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in
personnel-related costs included an increase of $14.1 million in stock-based
compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior
fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $10.3 million in stock-based
compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted
prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such
RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020.

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Our product gross margin was 65% for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021,
compared to 62% for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to
better discipline over discounting, higher volume-based discounts for our
purchases of third-party cloud infrastructure, and increased scale across our
cloud infrastructure regions. While we expect our product gross margin to
increase for the fiscal year ending January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year
ended January 31, 2021, fluctuations in the mix and timing of customers'
consumption, which is inherently variable at our customers' discretion, whether
or not a customer contracts with us through our marketplace listings, our
discounting practices, including as a result of changes to the competitive
environment, and the extent of our investments in our operations, could hinder
any improvement in our product gross margin. Given that we have only recently
started to scale our professional services organization and our professional
services and other revenue represents a small percentage of our revenue, we do
not believe year-over-year changes in professional services and other gross
margins are currently meaningful.
Sales and Marketing
                                                                 Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                               2021                      2020                    % Change

                                                                    (dollars in thousands)
Sales and marketing                                      $      479,317          $             293,577                    63%
Percentage of revenue                                                  81%                        111%
Headcount (at period end)                                            1,257                         989



Sales and marketing expenses increased $185.7 million for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The
increase was primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of
$160.4 million in personnel-related costs (excluding commission expenses) and
allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to
the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an
increase of $77.1 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the
recognition of $56.7 million in stock-based compensation expense using an
accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the
performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon
the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020, and, to a lesser extent, the
recognition of $16.0 million in stock-based compensation expense related to our
2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (2020 ESPP), which became effective in
connection with our IPO. Expenses associated with sales commissions and draws
paid to our sales force and third-party referral fees, including amortization of
deferred commissions, increased $33.8 million for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, due to an increase in
bookings and modifications to our sales compensation plan during the fiscal year
ended January 31, 2021, as discussed in "Components of Results of Operations"
above. Other sales and marketing program expenses, which include advertising
costs and contractor fees, also increased $13.2 million for the fiscal year
ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year.

The overall increase in sales and marketing expenses was partially offset by
lower than anticipated travel and event expenses as we have implemented certain
travel restrictions and replaced in-person events with digital events in
response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes resulted in a $12.7 million
reduction in travel-related expenses and a $2.1 million reduction in expenses
from our user conferences and programs for the fiscal year ended January 31,
2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in sales and marketing
expenses was further offset by a decrease of $9.0 million in recruiting expenses
for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year,
primarily due to a reduction in third-party recruiting expenses as we continued
to increase the utilization of our internal recruiting organization.
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Research and Development
                                            Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                                     2021             2020          % Change

                                               (dollars in thousands)
Research and development                                          $ 237,946      $      105,160           126%
Percentage of revenue                                                     40%               40%
Headcount (at period end)                                                 478               311



Research and development expenses increased $132.8 million for the fiscal year
ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The
increase was primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of
$122.7 million in personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the
fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The
increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $83.5 million in
stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to
the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $62.9 million in
stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for
RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition
applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in
September 2020, and, to a lesser extent, the recognition of $5.7 million in
stock-based compensation expense related to the 2020 ESPP. The remaining
increase in stock-based compensation was attributable to additional RSUs granted
to new employees after our IPO with an increased weighted-average grant date
fair value.

The increase in research and development expenses for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was also due to an increase of $9.3 million in third-party cloud infrastructure expenses incurred in developing our platform. General and Administrative

                                              Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                                       2021             2020          % Change

                                                 (dollars in thousands)
General and administrative                                          $ 176,135      $      107,542            64%
Percentage of revenue                                                       30%               41%
Headcount (at period end)                                                   421               211



General and administrative expenses increased $68.6 million for the fiscal year
ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The
increase was primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of
$53.3 million in personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the
fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The
increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $32.4 million in
stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to
the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $36.8 million in
stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for
RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition
applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in
September 2020, and, to a lesser extent, the recognition of $2.8 million in
stock-based compensation expense related to the 2020 ESPP. The overall increase
in stock-based compensation was partially offset by a decrease of $11.3 million
in expense attributable to the modification of certain awards held by a former
executive officer.

The increase in general and administrative expenses, which includes insurance
and other corporate expenses, was also due to an increase of $6.8 million for
the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year for
additional expenses as a result of becoming a public company. Expenses relating
to outside services also increased $6.7 million for the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily related to legal,
accounting, and other professional services fees. The remaining increase in
general and administrative expenses of $1.7 million was due to expenses
associated with software and subscription services used to support our
administrative functions.
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Interest Income
                                  Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                            2021          2020        % Change

                                     (dollars in thousands)
Interest income                                           $ 7,507      $ 11,551         (35  %)



Interest income decreased $4.0 million for the fiscal year ended January 31,
2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to lower
yields on investments, partially offset by the effect of higher cash and
investment balances.
Provision for Income Taxes
                                                               Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                                                 2021                        2020                     % Change

                                                                  (dollars in thousands)
Loss before income taxes                                                 $           (537,040)       $           (347,542)                    55  %
Provision for income taxes                                                               2,062                         993                   108  %
Effective tax rate                                                                      (0.4%)                      (0.3%)



The provision for income taxes increased primarily as a result of the increase
in pre-tax income related to international operations and U.S. state taxes in
the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, and the partial release of a valuation
allowance as a result of an acquisition in the fiscal year ended January 31,
2020.

We maintain a full valuation allowance on our U.S. and U.K. deferred tax assets,
and the significant components of our recorded tax expense are current cash
taxes in various jurisdictions. The cash tax expenses are impacted by each
jurisdiction's individual tax rates, laws on the timing of recognition of income
and deductions, and availability of net operating losses and tax credits. Our
effective tax rate might fluctuate significantly and could be adversely affected
to the extent earnings are lower than forecasted in countries that have lower
statutory rates and higher than forecasted in countries that have higher
statutory rates.

Quarterly Results of Operations Data and Other Data
The following tables summarize our selected unaudited quarterly consolidated
statements of operations data, the percentage of revenue that each line item
represents, and the key business metrics for each of the eight quarters in the
period ended January 31, 2021. The information for each of these quarters has
been prepared on the same basis as our audited annual consolidated financial
statements and reflects, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a
normal, recurring nature that are necessary for the fair statement of the
results of operations for these periods. This data should be read in conjunction
with our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual
Report on Form 10-K. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the
results that may be expected for the full fiscal year or any other period.
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Consolidated Statements of Operations Data
                                                                                            Three Months Ended
                         January 31,          October 31,           July 31,          April 30,           January 31,           October 31,          

July 31, April 30,

                             2021                 2020                2020               2020                2020                  2019                 2019               2019

                                                                                              (in thousands)
Revenue                 $   190,465          $   159,624          $ 133,145 

$ 108,815 $ 87,692 $ 73,012 $ 60,339 $ 43,705 Cost of revenue(1)

           82,904               66,681             50,446             42,557                34,522                29,489             28,508             24,038
Gross profit                107,561               92,943             82,699             66,258                53,170                43,523             31,831             19,667
Operating expenses(1):
Sales and marketing         154,050              134,727             92,663             97,877                80,444                75,668             73,413             64,052
Research and
development                  93,997               74,138             36,533             33,278                29,709                27,669             26,164             21,618
General and
administrative               59,911               53,532             31,186             31,506                28,129                30,318             27,823             21,272
Total operating
expenses                    307,958              262,397            160,382            162,661               138,282               133,655            127,400            106,942
Operating loss             (200,397)            (169,454)           (77,683)           (96,403)              (85,112)              (90,132)           (95,569)           (87,275)
Interest income               1,853                1,517              1,689              2,448                 2,299                 2,491              3,167              3,594
Other income (expense),
net                             951                 (519)            (1,109)                67                  (186)                  (40)              (492)              (287)
Loss before income
taxes                      (197,593)            (168,456)           (77,103)           (93,888)              (82,999)              (87,681)           (92,894)           (83,968)
Provision for (benefit
from) income taxes            1,342                  433                531               (244)                  255                   376                521               (159)
Net loss                $  (198,935)         $  (168,889)         $

(77,634) $ (93,644) $ (83,254) $ (88,057)

     $ (93,415)         $ (83,809)
Net loss per share
attributable to Class A
and Class B common
stockholders - basic
and diluted(2)          $     (0.70)         $     (1.01)         $   (1.31)         $   (1.72)         $      (1.67)         $      (1.92)         $   (2.18)         $   (2.07)


________________

(1)Includes stock-based compensation as follows:

                                                                                               Three Months Ended
                              January 31,          October 31,         July 31,          April 30,           January 31,           October 31,          July 31,          April 30,
                                 2021                 2020               2020               2020                2020                  2019                2019               2019

                                                                                                 (in thousands)
Cost of revenue             $     18,135          $   13,226          $  1,164          $   1,117          $        968          $        832          $  1,070          $     780
Sales and marketing               48,165              39,481             5,135              5,098                 5,329                 4,802             5,066              5,560
Research and development          50,037              39,368             5,154              4,664                 4,921                 4,411             3,457              2,954
General and administrative        27,314              27,066             6,751              9,566                 9,756                12,913             8,858              6,722
Stock-based compensation
expense                     $    143,651          $  119,141          $ 18,204          $  20,445          $     20,974          $     22,958          $ 18,451          $  16,016



During the three months ended October 31, 2020, we began recognizing stock-based
compensation expense related to our RSUs granted prior to our IPO, which had
both service-based and performance-based vesting conditions. During the three
months ended January 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, we recognized stock-based
compensation expense associated with these RSUs of $81.7 million and $97.0
million, respectively, of which $55.5 million of cumulative compensation expense
was recognized upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020 due to the
satisfaction of the performance-based vesting condition. See Note 11 to our
consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form
10-K for further details.
The increase in stock-based compensation expense for the three months ended
January 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020 was
primarily attributable to additional RSU grants to new employees, increased
weighted-average grant date fair value of RSUs, and expense related to the 2020
ESPP. The overall increase was partially offset by the decrease in stock-based
compensation expense associated with RSUs granted prior to our IPO as discussed
above.

(2)See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in
this Annual Report on Form 10-K for an explanation of the calculations of our
net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders,
basic and diluted.

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Percentage of Revenue Data
                                                                                                          Three Months Ended
                             January 31,           October 31,            July 31,              April 30,              January 31,              October 31,              July 31,              April 30,
                                2021                   2020                 2020                   2020                    2020                     2019                   2019                   2019

Revenue                             100  %               100  %                100  %                 100  %                   100  %                   100  %                100  %                 100  %
Cost of revenue                      44                   42                    38                     39                       39                       40                    47                     55
Gross margin                         56                   58                    62                     61                       61                       60                    53                     45
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing                  81                   84                    70                     90                       92                      104                   122                    146
Research and development             49                   46                    27                     30                       34                       38                    43                     49
General and
administrative                       31                   34                    23                     29                       32                       42                    46                     49
Total operating expenses            161                  164                   120                    149                      158                      184                   211                    244
Operating margin                   (105)                (106)                  (58)                   (88)                     (97)                    (124)                 (158)                  (199)
Interest income                       1                    -                     1                      2                        2                        4                     5                      8
Other income (expense),
net                                   -                    -                    (1)                     -                        -                        -                    (1)                    (1)
Loss before income taxes           (104)                (106)                  (58)                   (86)                     (95)                    (120)                 (154)                  (192)
Provision for (benefit
from) income taxes                    -                    -                     -                      -                        -                        1                     1                      -
Net loss                           (104  %)             (106  %)               (58  %)                (86  %)                  (95  %)                 (121  %)              (155  %)               (192  %)


Quarterly Changes in Revenue
Revenue increased sequentially in each of the quarters presented primarily due
to increased consumption of our platform by existing customers and the addition
of new customers. Because our revenue is based on consumption and consumption is
at the discretion of our customers, our historical revenue results are not
necessarily indicative of future performance.
Quarterly Changes in Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin
Cost of revenue increased sequentially in each of the quarters presented. For
all quarters presented, cost of revenue increased primarily as a result of
increased third-party cloud infrastructure expenses, driven by the initial cost
of new deployments and increased consumption of our platform by customers, as
well as increased personnel-related expenses resulting from increased headcount.
In addition, during the three months ended October 31, 2020, we began
recognizing, using an accelerated attribution method, stock-based compensation
expense associated with our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the
performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon
the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. Our cost of revenue for the
three months ended October 31, 2020 included $11.8 million of stock-based
compensation expense associated with such RSUs. As a result, our cost of revenue
increased, as a percentage of revenue, during the three months ended October 31,
2020 compared to the three months ended July 31, 2020. See Note 11 to our
consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form
10-K for further details.

Our cost of revenue increased, as a percentage of revenue, during the three
months ended January 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended October 31,
2020, due primarily to the increase in stock-based compensation as a result of
additional RSU grants to new employees, increased weighted-average grant date
fair value of RSUs, and expense related to the 2020 ESPP.

Except for the three months ended October 31, 2020 and January 31, 2021, our
improved quarterly gross margin since the three months ended October 31, 2019
was primarily attributable to higher volume-based discounts for purchases of
third-party cloud infrastructure, increased scale across our cloud
infrastructure regions, and improved platform pricing discipline. The decrease
in our quarterly gross margin during the three months ended October 31, 2020 and
January 31, 2021 was primarily a result of the increase in stock-based
compensation expense in those periods as discussed above.
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Quarterly Changes in Operating Expenses
Operating expenses have generally increased sequentially in each of the quarters
presented primarily due to increased headcount and other related costs to
support our growth. However, after the outbreak of COVID-19, we have seen slower
growth in certain operating expenses due to reduced business travel, deferred
hiring for some positions, and the virtualization or cancellation of customer
and employee events. In addition, during the three months ended October 31,
2020, we began recognizing, using an accelerated attribution method, stock-based
compensation expense associated with our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the
performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon
the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. Our operating expenses for the
three months ended October 31, 2020 included $85.2 million of stock-based
compensation expense associated with such RSUs. See Note 11 to our consolidated
financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for
further details. The increase in the absolute value of our operating expenses
for the three months ended January 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended
October 31, 2020 was also partially due to the increase in stock-based
compensation expense as a result of additional RSU grants to new employees,
increased weighted-average grant date fair value of RSUs, and expense related to
the 2020 ESPP.

We intend to continue to make significant investments in research and
development as we enhance our platform. We also intend to invest in our sales
and marketing organization to drive future revenue growth. As a result of the
closing of our IPO, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional
expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including costs to comply
with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national
securities exchange, costs related to compliance and reporting obligations, and
increased expenses for insurance, investor relations, and professional services.
Key Business Metrics
                                                                                     Three Months Ended
                       January 31,        October 31,         July 31,         April 30,         January 31,          October 31,          July 31,         April 30,
                          2021                2020              2020             2020                2020                 2019               2019             2019

Product revenue (in
millions)             $    178.3          $  148.5           $ 125.2          $  101.8          $      82.4          $      69.2          $  57.8          $   42.8

                       January 31,        October 31,         July 31,         April 30,         January 31,          October 31,          July 31,         April 30,
                          2021                2020              2020             2020                2020                 2019               2019             2019
Remaining performance
obligations (in
millions)             $  1,332.8          $  927.9           $ 688.2          $  467.8          $     426.3          $     273.0          $ 221.1          $  137.9
Total customers            4,139             3,554             3,117             2,720                2,392                1,934            1,547             1,194
Net revenue retention
rate                         168  %            162  %            158  %            171  %               169  %               189  %           223  %            187  %
Customers with
trailing 12-month
product revenue
greater than $1
million                       77                65                56                48                   41                   31               22                16


During the three months ended July 31, 2019, we experienced a significant increase in our net revenue retention rate as a result of a large enterprise customer's increased consumption of our platform.


Historically, we have received a higher volume of orders from new and existing
customers in the fourth fiscal quarter of each year as a result of industry
buying patterns. As a result, our sequential growth in RPO has historically been
highest in the fourth fiscal quarter of each fiscal year. In addition, we have
experienced a significant increase in RPO each quarter since the three months
ended July 31, 2020 primarily due to large enterprise customers entering into
multi-year capacity contracts.

We expect our net revenue retention rate to decrease over time as existing
customers that have consumed our platform for an extended period of time become
a larger portion of both our overall customer base and our product revenue that
we use to calculate net revenue retention rate, and as their consumption growth
primarily relates to existing use cases rather than new use cases.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since inception, we have financed operations primarily through proceeds received
from sales of equity securities and payments received from our customers as
further detailed below.

In September 2020, we completed our IPO which resulted in aggregate net proceeds
of $3.7 billion, after underwriting discounts of $121.7 million. We also
received aggregate proceeds of $500.0 million related to our concurrent private
placements, and did not pay any underwriting discounts or commissions with
respect to the shares that were sold in these private placements.

As of January 31, 2021, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash
equivalents, and short-term and long-term investments totaling $5.1 billion. Our
investments primarily consist of corporate notes and bonds, U.S. government and
agency securities, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and money market
funds.

We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents, and short-term and
long-term investments will be sufficient to support our working capital and
capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our future
capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our revenue growth
rate, the timing and the amount of cash received from customers, the expansion
of sales and marketing activities, the timing and extent of spending to support
development efforts, the price at which we are able to purchase public cloud
capacity, expenses associated with our international expansion, the introduction
of platform enhancements, and the continuing market adoption of our platform. In
the future, we may enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary
businesses, products, and technologies. We may be required to seek additional
equity or debt financing. In the event that we require additional financing, we
may not be able to raise such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. If
we are unable to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to
expand our operations and invest in continued innovation, we may not be able to
compete successfully, which would harm our business, results of operations, and
financial condition.

The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for the periods presented
(in thousands):

                                                             Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                                    2021                  2020                 2019

Net cash used in operating activities          $    (45,417)         $  (176,558)         $  (143,982)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing
activities                                       (4,036,645)             138,495             (362,642)
Net cash provided by financing activities         4,775,290               57,469              413,601


Operating Activities
Our largest source of operating cash is payments received from our customers.
Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are for personnel-related
expenses, sales and marketing expenses, third-party cloud infrastructure
expenses, and overhead expenses. We have generated negative cash flows and have
supplemented working capital through net proceeds from the sale of equity
securities.

Cash used in operating activities mainly consists of our net loss adjusted for certain non-cash items, including stock-based compensation, net of amounts capitalized, depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, amortization of acquired intangible assets, amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets, amortization of deferred commissions, and changes in operating assets and liabilities during each period.


For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, net cash used in operating
activities was $45.4 million, primarily consisting of our net loss of $539.1
million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $386.8 million, and net cash inflows
of $106.9 million provided by changes in our operating assets and liabilities,
net of the effect of an acquisition. The main drivers of the changes in
operating assets and liabilities, net of the effect of an acquisition, were a
$312.9 million increase in deferred revenue, resulting primarily from increased
prepaid capacity arrangements; a $58.3 million increase in accrued expenses and
other liabilities due to increased headcount, growth in our business, and
employee contributions under the 2020 ESPP; and a $116.3 million increase in
accounts receivable due to growth of our business and timing of collections,
partially offset by (i) a $62.3 million increase in prepaid expenses and other
assets, primarily driven by increased prepaid insurance as a result of becoming
a public company, increased interest income receivables resulting from the
increase in our investments, and increased prepaid third-party infrastructure
expenses; (ii) a $51.4 million increase in deferred commissions earned on
bookings; and (iii) a $31.3 million decrease in operating lease liabilities due
to payments related to our operating lease obligations.
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For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, net cash used in operating
activities was $176.6 million, primarily consisting of our net loss of $348.5
million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $122.6 million, and net cash inflows
of $49.3 million provided by changes in our operating assets and liabilities,
net of effect of acquisitions. The main drivers of the changes in operating
assets and liabilities, net of effect of acquisitions, were a $223.0
million increase in deferred revenue, resulting primarily from increased prepaid
capacity arrangements, a $35.0 million increase in accrued expenses and other
liabilities due to increased headcount and growth in our business, and a $1.1
million increase in accounts payable. These amounts were partially offset by a
$116.9 million increase in accounts receivable due to an increase in sales, a
$68.6 million increase in deferred commissions earned on bookings, a $10.8
million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, primarily driven by
prepaid software and subscription services and deposits for our leased
facilities, and a $13.5 million decrease in operating lease liabilities due to
payments related to our operating lease obligations.

Net cash used in operating activities decreased $131.1 million for the fiscal
year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020,
primarily due to an increase of $435.6 million in cash collected from customers
resulting from increased sales. This was partially offset by increased
expenditures due to an increase in headcount and growth in our business. We
expect net cash used in operating activities to decrease for the fiscal year
ending January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021
was $4.0 billion, primarily as a result of net purchases of investments, and, to
a lesser extent, purchases of property and equipment to support existing and
additional office facilities, purchases of intangible assets, cash paid for an
acquisition, and capitalized internal-use software development costs.

Net cash provided by investing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31,
2020 was $138.5 million, primarily as a result of net sales, maturities, and
redemptions of investments, partially offset by purchases of property and
equipment to support additional office facilities and cash paid for an
acquisition, net of cash acquired.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31,
2021 was $4.8 billion, primarily as a result of the $4.2 billion of aggregate
net proceeds from our IPO and the concurrent private placements completed in
September 2020, net of underwriting discounts, as well as $532.1 million in
proceeds from the issuance of equity securities.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31,
2020 was $57.5 million, primarily as a result of proceeds from the issuance of
equity securities.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of January 31,
2021:
                                                                              Payments Due By Period
                                                               Less than 1                                                   More than 5
                                            Total                 Year              1-3 Years           3-5 Years               Years

                                                                                  (in thousands)
Operating lease commitments             $   202,082          $     19,407          $  39,730          $    35,744          $    107,201
Purchase commitments                      1,758,120                57,286            477,625            1,223,209    (1)              -
Total                                   $ 1,960,202          $     76,693          $ 517,355          $ 1,258,953          $    107,201


________________
(1)Includes $540.9 million of remaining non-cancelable contractual commitments
as of January 31, 2021 related to one of our third-party cloud infrastructure
agreements, under which we committed to spend an aggregate of at least $550.0
million, between September 2020 and December 2025 with no minimum purchase
commitment during any year. If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment
by December 2025, we are required to pay the difference, and such payment can be
applied to qualifying expenditures for cloud infrastructure services for up to
twelve months after December 2025.
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The commitment amounts in the table above are associated with contracts that are
enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms,
including fixed or minimum services to be used, fixed, minimum or variable price
provisions, and the approximate timing of the actions under the contracts. Our
operating lease commitments, net of sublease receipts, relate primarily to our
facilities. Purchase commitments relate mainly to third-party cloud
infrastructure agreements and subscription arrangements used to facilitate our
operations at the enterprise level. Our long-term purchase commitments may be
satisfied earlier than in the payment periods presented above as we continue to
grow and scale our business.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We did not have during any of the periods presented, and we do not currently
have, any off-balance sheet financing arrangements or any relationships with
unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, including entities sometimes
referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, that were
established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or
other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included
elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are prepared in accordance with
GAAP. The preparation of consolidated financial statements also requires us to
make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets,
liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses, and related disclosures. We base our
estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we
believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ
significantly from the estimates made by management. To the extent that there
are differences between our estimates and actual results, our future financial
statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations, and cash
flows will be affected.

We believe that the accounting policies described below involve a substantial
degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we
believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our
consolidated financial condition and results of operations. For further
information, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included
elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Revenue Recognition
We account for revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification
(ASC) Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts With Customers (ASC 606) for all periods
presented.

We deliver our platform over the internet as a service. Customers choose to
consume our platform under either capacity arrangements, in which they commit to
a certain amount of consumption at specified prices, or under on-demand
arrangements, in which we charge for use of our platform monthly in arrears.
Under capacity arrangements, from which a majority of our revenue is derived, we
typically bill our customers annually in advance of their consumption. Revenue
from on-demand arrangements typically relates to initial consumption as part of
customer onboarding and, to a lesser extent, overage consumption beyond a
customer's contracted usage amount or following the expiration of a customer's
contract. Revenue from on-demand arrangements represented 4%, 4%, and 5% of our
revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019,
respectively. We recognize revenue as customers consume compute, storage, and
data transfer resources under either of these arrangements. In limited
instances, customers pay an annual deployment fee to gain access to a dedicated
instance of a virtual private deployment. We recognize the deployment fee
ratably over the contract term.

Customers do not have the contractual right to take possession of our platform.
Pricing for our platform includes embedded support services, data backup, and
disaster recovery services, as well as future updates, when and if available,
offered during the contract term.

Our customer contracts for capacity typically have a term of one to four years.
To the extent our customers enter into such contracts and either consume our
platform in excess of their capacity commitments or continue to use our platform
after expiration of the contract term, they are charged for their incremental
consumption. In many cases, our customer contracts permit customers to roll over
any unused capacity to a subsequent order, generally on the purchase of
additional capacity. Customer contracts are generally non-cancelable during the
contract term, although customers can terminate for breach if we materially fail
to perform. For those customers who do not have a capacity arrangement, our
on-demand arrangements generally have a monthly stated contract term and can be
terminated at any time by either the customer or us.
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For storage resources, consumption for a given customer is based on the average
terabytes per month of all of such customer's data stored in our platform. For
compute resources, consumption is based on the type of compute resource used and
the duration of use or, for some features, the volume of data processed. For
data transfer resources, consumption is based on terabytes of data transferred,
the public cloud provider used, and the region to and from which the transfer is
executed.

Our revenue also includes professional services and other revenue, which
consists of consulting, on-site technical solution services, and training
related to our platform. Our professional services revenue is recognized over
time based on input measures, including time and materials costs incurred
relative to total costs, with consideration given to output measures, such as
contract deliverables, when applicable. Other revenue consists of fees from
customer training delivered on-site or through publicly available classes.

We determine revenue recognition in accordance with ASC 606 through the following five steps:


1) Identify the contract with a customer. We consider the terms and conditions
of the contracts and our customary business practices in identifying our
contracts under ASC 606. We determine we have a contract with a customer when
the contract has been approved by both parties, we can identify each party's
rights regarding the services to be transferred, we can identify the payment
terms for the services, we have determined the customer to have the ability and
intent to pay, and the contract has commercial substance. At contract inception,
we evaluate whether two or more contracts should be combined and accounted for
as a single contract and whether the combined or single contract includes more
than one performance obligation. These combinations may be subjective and
differing combinations could result in differing allocation of revenue of
reporting periods. We apply judgment in determining the customer's ability and
intent to pay, which is based on a variety of factors, including the customer's
payment history or, in the case of a new customer, credit and financial
information pertaining to the customer.

2) Identify the performance obligations in the contract. Performance obligations
promised in a contract are identified based on the services that will be
transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the
customer can benefit from the service either on its own or together with other
resources that are readily available from third parties or from us, and are
distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the services is
separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. We treat
consumption of our platform for compute, storage, and data transfer resources as
one single performance obligation because they are consumed by customers as a
single, integrated offering. We do not make any one of these resources available
for consumption without the others. Instead, each of compute, storage, and data
transfer work together to drive consumption on our platform. We treat the
virtual private deployments for customers, professional services, on-site
technical solution services, and training each as a separate and distinct
performance obligation. Some of our customers have negotiated an option to
purchase additional capacity at a stated discount. These options generally do
not provide a material right as they are priced at our stand-alone selling price
(SSP), as described below, as the stated discounts are not incremental to the
range of discounts typically given.

3) Determine the transaction price. The transaction price is determined based on
the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring services to
the customer. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in
our judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative
revenue recognized under the contract will not occur. We estimate variable
consideration based on expected value, primarily relying on our history. In
certain situations, we may also use the most likely amount as the basis of our
estimate. We may have insufficient relevant historical data or other information
to arrive at an accurate estimate of variable consideration using either the
"expected value" or "most likely amount" method. Additionally, changes in
business practices, such as those related to service level guarantees or
marketing programs, may introduce new forms of variable consideration, as well
as more complexity and uncertainty in the estimation process. None of our
contracts contain a significant financing component. Revenue is recognized net
of any taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to
governmental entities (e.g., sales and other indirect taxes).

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4) Allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract. If
the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction
price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain
multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price
to each performance obligation based on a relative SSP. The determination of a
relative SSP for each distinct performance obligation requires judgment. We
determine SSP for performance obligations based on an observable standalone
selling price when it is available, as well as other factors, including the
overall pricing objectives, which take into consideration market conditions and
customer-specific factors, including a review of internal discounting tables,
the services being sold, the volume of capacity commitments, and other factors.
The observable standalone selling price is established based on the price at
which products and services are sold separately. If an SSP is not observable
through past transactions, we estimate it using available information including,
but not limited to, market data and other observable inputs. As our business and
offerings evolve over time, modifications to our pricing and discounting
methodologies, changes in the scope and nature of product and service offerings
and/or changes in customer segmentation may result in a lack of consistency,
making it difficult to establish and/or maintain SSP. Changes in SSP could
result in different and unanticipated allocations of revenue in contracts with
multiple performance obligations. These factors, among others, may adversely
impact the amount of revenue and gross margin we report in a particular period.

5) Recognize revenue when or as we satisfy a performance obligation. Revenue is
recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by
transferring the promised service to a customer. Revenue is recognized when
control of the services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that
reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those
services. We determined an output method to be the most appropriate measure of
progress because it most faithfully represents when the value of the services is
simultaneously received and consumed by the customer, and control is
transferred. Virtual private deployment fees are recognized ratably over the
term of the deployment as the deployment service represents a stand-ready
performance obligation provided throughout the deployment term.
Stock-Based Compensation
We measure and recognize compensation expense for all stock-based awards,
including stock options, restricted stock awards, and RSUs granted to employees,
directors, and non-employees, and stock purchase rights granted under the 2020
ESPP (ESPP Rights) to employees, based on the estimated fair value of the awards
on the date of grant. The fair value of each stock option and ESPP Right granted
is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of
each RSU is based on the estimated fair value of our common stock on the date of
grant.

Stock-based compensation is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over
the requisite service period. We also grant certain awards that have
performance-based vesting conditions. Stock-based compensation expense for such
awards is recognized using an accelerated attribution method from the time it is
deemed probable that the vesting condition will be met through the time the
service-based vesting condition has been achieved. If an award contains a
provision whereby vesting is accelerated upon a change in control, we recognize
stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis, as a change in
control is considered to be outside of our control and is not considered
probable until it occurs. Forfeitures are accounted for in the period in which
they occur.

The determination of the grant-date fair value using an option-pricing model is
affected by the estimated fair value of our common stock as well as assumptions
regarding a number of other complex and subjective variables. These variables
include expected stock price volatility over an expected term, actual and
projected employee stock option exercise behaviors, the risk-free interest rate
for an expected term, and expected dividends. The assumptions used in our
option-pricing model represent our best estimates. These estimates involve
inherent uncertainties and the application of judgment. If factors change and
different assumptions are used, our stock-based compensation expense could be
materially different in the future.

These assumptions are estimated as follows:


•Expected term-For stock options considered to be "plain vanilla" options, we
estimate the expected term based on the simplified method, which is essentially
the weighted average of the vesting period and contractual term, as our
historical option exercise experience does not provide a reasonable basis upon
which to estimate the expected term.

•Expected volatility-We perform an analysis of using the average volatility of a
peer group of representative public companies with sufficient trading history
over the expected term to develop an expected volatility assumption.
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•Risk-free interest rate-Risk-free rate is estimated based upon quoted market
yields for the United States Treasury debt securities for a term consistent with
the expected life of the awards in effect at the time of grant.

•Expected dividend yield-Because we have never paid and have no intention to pay cash dividends on common stock, the expected dividend yield is zero.


•Fair value of underlying common stock-Prior to our IPO, our board of directors
considered numerous objective and subjective factors to determine the fair value
of our common stock at each meeting in which awards were approved. After our
IPO, the fair value of our common stock is determined by the closing price, on
the date of grant, of our common stock, which is traded on the New York Stock
Exchange.

The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions used in estimating the fair value of stock options granted to employees and non-employees during each of the periods presented:

                                       Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
                                       2021                   2020        2019

Expected term (in years)                             6.0         6.0         6.3
Expected volatility                              37.2  %     36.9  %     42.9  %
Risk-free interest rate                           1.0  %      2.0  %      2.9  %
Expected dividend yield                             -  %        -  %        -  %



Our RSUs granted prior to our IPO had both service-based and performance-based
vesting conditions. The service-based vesting condition for these awards is
typically satisfied over four years with a cliff vesting period of one year and
continued vesting quarterly thereafter. The performance-based vesting condition
is satisfied on the earlier of (i) the effective date of a registration
statement of the company filed under the Securities Act for the sale of our
common stock or (ii) immediately prior to the closing of a change in control of
the company. Both events were not deemed probable until consummated, and
therefore, stock-based compensation related to these RSUs remained unrecognized
prior to the effectiveness of our IPO. Upon the effectiveness of our IPO, the
performance-based vesting condition was satisfied, and therefore, we recognized
cumulative stock-based compensation expense of $55.5 million using the
accelerated attribution method for the portion of the RSU awards for which the
service-based vesting condition had been fully or partially satisfied. For the
fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we recognized stock-based compensation
expense of $178.7 million associated with such RSUs. RSUs granted after our IPO
do not contain the performance-based vesting condition described above.

We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the assumptions related to our
stock-based compensation on a prospective basis. As we continue to accumulate
additional data related to our common stock, we may have refinements to our
estimates, which could materially impact our future stock-based compensation
expense.
Common Stock Valuations
Prior to our IPO, the fair value of the common stock underlying our stock-based
awards had historically been determined by our board of directors, with input
from management and corroboration from contemporaneous third-party valuations.
We believed that our board of directors had the relevant experience and
expertise to determine the fair value of our common stock. Given the absence of
a public trading market of our common stock, and in accordance with the American
Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Aid, Valuation of
Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, our board of
directors exercised reasonable judgment and considered numerous objective and
subjective factors to determine the best estimate of the fair value of our
common stock at each grant date. These factors included:

•contemporaneous valuations of our common stock performed by independent
third-party specialists;
•the prices, rights, preferences, and privileges of our convertible preferred
stock relative to those of our common stock;
•the prices paid for common or convertible preferred stock sold to third-party
investors by us and prices paid in secondary transactions for shares repurchased
by us in arm's-length transactions, including any tender offers;
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•the lack of marketability inherent in our common stock;
•our actual operating and financial performance;
•our current business conditions and projections;
•the hiring of key personnel and the experience of our management;
•the history of the company and the introduction of new products;
•our stage of development;
•the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an IPO, a merger, or
acquisition of our company given prevailing market conditions;
•the operational and financial performance of comparable publicly traded
companies; and
•the U.S. and global capital market conditions and overall economic conditions.
In valuing our common stock, the fair value of our business was determined using
various valuation methods, including combinations of income and market
approaches with input from management. The income approach estimated value based
on the expectation of future cash flows that a company would generate. These
future cash flows were discounted to their present values using a discount rate
that is derived from an analysis of the cost of capital of comparable publicly
traded companies in our industry or similar business operations as of each
valuation date and was adjusted to reflect the risks inherent in our cash flows.
The market approach estimated value based on a comparison of the subject company
to comparable public companies in a similar line of business. From the
comparable companies, a representative market value multiple was determined and
then applied to the subject company's financial forecasts to estimate the value
of the subject company.

For each valuation, the fair value of our business determined by the income and
market approaches was then allocated to the common stock using either the
option-pricing method (OPM), or a hybrid of the probability-weighted expected
return method (PWERM) and OPM methods. Our valuations prior to April 30, 2019
were allocated based on the OPM. Beginning April 30, 2019, our valuations were
allocated based on a hybrid method of the PWERM and the OPM.

In addition, we also considered any secondary transactions involving our capital
stock. In our evaluation of those transactions, we considered the facts and
circumstances of each transaction to determine the extent to which they
represented a fair value exchange and assigned the transactions an appropriate
weighting in the valuation of our common stock. Factors considered included the
number of different buyers and sellers, transaction volume, timing relative to
the valuation date, whether the transactions occurred between willing and
unrelated parties, and whether the transactions involved investors with access
to our financial information.

Application of these approaches and methodologies involved the use of estimates,
judgments, and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective, such as those
regarding our expected future revenue, expenses, and future cash flows, discount
rates, market multiples, the selection of comparable public companies, and the
probability of and timing associated with possible future events.

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Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting
Policies, in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included
elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of recent
accounting pronouncements.

JOBS Act Accounting Election
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business
Startups (JOBS) Act. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can
take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or
revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company
to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would
otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended
transition period under the JOBS Act for the adoption of certain accounting
standards until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth
company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition
period provided in the JOBS Act. See Note 2, Basis of Presentation and Summary
of Significant Accounting Policies, in the notes to our consolidated financial
statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As a result,
our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new
or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.


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