HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC.

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Hovnanian Enterprises : Annual Report (Form 10-K)

01/05/2022 | 03:54am EDT
hov20211031_10k.htm

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT

OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 1-8551

Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Delaware

22-1851059

(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

90 Matawan Road, Fifth Floor, Matawan, NJ

07747

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

732-747-7800

(Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A Common Stock $0.01 par value per share

HOV

New York Stock Exchange

Preferred Stock Purchase Rights(1)

N/A

New York Stock Exchange

Depositary Shares each representing

1/1,000th of a share of 7.625% Series A

Preferred Stock

HOVNP

Nasdaq Global Market

(1) Each share of Common Stock includes an associated Preferred Stock Purchase Right. Each Preferred Stock Purchase Right initially represents the right, if such Preferred Stock Purchase Right becomes exercisable, to purchase from the Company one ten-thousandth of a share of its Series B Junior Preferred Stock for each share of Common Stock. The Preferred Stock Purchase Rights currently cannot trade separately from the underlying Common Stock.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933. Yes ☐ No ☒

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer ☐

Accelerated Filer ☒

Nonaccelerated Filer ☐

Smaller Reporting Company ☐

Emerging Growth Company ☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting and nonvoting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity as of April 30, 2021 (the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $679,906,716.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date. 5,595,734 shares of Class A Common Stock and 659,207 shares of Class B Common Stock were outstanding as of December 10, 2021.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Part III - Those portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with registrant's annual meeting of stockholders to be held on March 29, 2022, which are responsive to those parts of Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 as identified herein.

2
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FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item

Page

PART I

4

1

Business

4

1A

Risk Factors

12

1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

20

2

Properties

21

3

Legal Proceedings

21

4

Mine Safety Disclosures

21

Information About Our Executive Officers

21

PART II

21

5

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

21

6

Reserved

21

7

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

21

7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

42

8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

43

9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

43

9A

Controls and Procedures

43

9B

Other Information

43

9C

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

43

PART III

44

10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

44

11

Executive Compensation

45

12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

45

13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

45

14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

45

PART IV

45

15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

45

16

Form 10-K Summary

51

Signatures

52

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PartI

ITEM 1

BUSINESS

Business Overview

Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. ("HEI") conducts all of its homebuilding and financial services operations through its subsidiaries (references herein to the "Company", "we", "us" or "our" refer to HEI and its consolidated subsidiaries and should be understood to reflect the consolidated business of HEI's subsidiaries). Through its subsidiaries, HEI designs, constructs, markets, and sells single-family detached homes, attached townhomes and condominiums, urban infill, and active lifestyle homes in planned residential developments and is one of the nation's largest builders of residential homes. Founded in 1959 by Kevork Hovnanian, HEI was incorporated in New Jersey in 1967 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1983. Since the incorporation of HEI's predecessor company, the Company combined with its unconsolidated joint ventures have delivered in excess of 355,000 homes, including 6,793 homes in fiscal 2021. The Company has two distinct operations: homebuilding and financial services. Our homebuilding operations consist of six segments: Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West. Our financial services operations provide mortgage loans and title services to the customers of our homebuilding operations.

We are currently, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, offering homes for sale in 124 communities in 26 markets in 14 states throughout the United States. We market and build homes for first-time buyers, first-time and second-time move-up buyers, luxury buyers, active lifestyle buyers and empty nesters. We offer a variety of home styles at base prices ranging from $173,000 to $1,273,000 with an average sales price, including options, of $431,000 nationwide in fiscal 2021.

Our operations span all significant aspects of the home-buying process - from design, construction, and sale, to mortgage origination and title services.

The following is a summary of our growth history:

1959 - Founded by Kevork Hovnanian as a New Jersey homebuilder.

1983 - Completed initial public offering.

1986 - Entered the North Carolina market through the investment in New Fortis Homes.

1992 - Entered the greater Washington, D.C. market.

1994 - Entered the Coastal Southern California market.

1998 - Expanded in the greater Washington, D.C. market through the acquisition of P.C. Homes.

1999 - Entered the Dallas, Texas market through our acquisition of Goodman Homes. Further diversified and strengthened our position as New Jersey's largest homebuilder through the acquisition of Matzel & Mumford.

2001 - Continued expansion in the greater Washington D.C. and North Carolina markets through the acquisition of Washington Homes. This acquisition further strengthened our operations in each of these markets.

2002 - Entered the Central Valley market in Northern California and Inland Empire region of Southern California through the acquisition of Forecast Homes.

2003 - Expanded operations in Texas and entered the Houston market through the acquisition of Parkside Homes and Brighton Homes. Entered the greater Ohio market through our acquisition of Summit Homes and entered the greater metro Phoenix market through our acquisition of Great Western Homes.

2004 - Entered the greater Tampa, Florida market through the acquisition of Windward Homes and started operations in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota market.

2005 - Entered the Orlando, Florida market through our acquisition of Cambridge Homes and entered the greater Chicago, Illinois market and expanded our position in Florida and Minnesota through the acquisition of the operations of Town & Country Homes, which occurred concurrently with our entering into a joint venture with affiliates of Blackstone Real Estate Advisors to own and develop Town & Country Homes' existing residential communities. We also entered the Cleveland, Ohio market through the acquisition of Oster Homes.

2006 - Entered the coastal markets of South Carolina and Georgia through the acquisition of Craftbuilt Homes.

During fiscal 2016, we exited the Minneapolis, Minnesota and Raleigh, North Carolina markets and sold land portfolios in those markets. During fiscal 2018, we completed a wind down of our operations in the San Francisco Bay area in Northern California and in Tampa, Florida. During fiscal 2020, we began a wind down of our operations in the Chicago, Illinois market.

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Geographic Breakdown of Markets by Segment

The Company markets and builds homes that are constructed in 16 of the nation's top 50 housing markets. We segregate our homebuilding operations geographically into the following six segments:

Northeast: New Jersey and Pennsylvania

Mid-Atlantic: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C. and West Virginia

Midwest: Illinois and Ohio

Southeast: Florida, Georgia and South Carolina

Southwest: Arizona and Texas

West: California

For financial information about our segments, see Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

Human Capital

As of October 31, 2021, we employed 1,784 full-time associates of whom 1,268 were involved in our Homebuilding operations, 165 were involved in the Financial Services operations and 351 were involved in our Corporate operations. We do not have collective bargaining agreements relating to any of our associates.

Successful execution of our strategy is dependent on attracting, developing and retaining key associates and members of our management team. The skills, experience and industry knowledge of our team significantly benefit our operations and performance. We continuously evaluate, modify, and enhance our internal processes and technologies to increase engagement, productivity, efficiency and the skills our associates need to be successful.

We believe that talented associates are the Company's greatest asset and play a key role in creating long-term value for our stakeholders. As of October 31, 2021, 19% of our associates had been with the Company for more than 15 years, and the average tenure of all associates was greater than seven years. We understand that our ultimate success and ability to compete are significantly dependent on how well we identify, hire, train, and retain highly qualified personnel. We realize that each associate has a unique vision and their own special talents. We are committed to being an employer that fosters the growth of each associate, while building an inclusive and diverse workforce.

In fiscal 2021, our Accelerated Leadership Development Program (ALDP) formed its second class following the initial success of the 2018 ALDP. The goal of this program is to identify leaders within and outside of the organization (as part of our recruiting efforts) to mentor, in order to drive growth and value creation, as well as considerations for succession planning. We actively seek to attract women and candidates of diverse backgrounds to the ALDP, and we significantly increased the proportion of women and underrepresented groups by 44% with our fiscal 2021 ALDP class.

We believe that our focus on diversity and inclusion across the organization positions the Company to deliver innovation and growth. We have a diverse associate base comprised of 28% non-white associates as of October 31, 2021. Additionally, as of October 31, 2021, 44% of our associates were women, and women represent 40% of all associates in manager and more senior positions.

Promoting a diverse and inclusive work environment is a major priority at Hovnanian. In 2020, the Company formed a Diversity & Inclusion Committee, which is led by the CEO and comprised of members of senior leadership and associates in various functions throughout the organization representing various backgrounds. The objective of the committee is to advise on and evaluate the Company's diversity and inclusion initiatives and to offer suggestions and guidance. The Diversity & Inclusion Committee meets quarterly. All associates are required to take a Diversity Made Simple training course. Associates in leadership positions (representing approximately 20% of all associates) are obligated to participate in more extensive diversity and inclusion training sessions.

Hovnanian is also a founding member of the Building Talent Foundation whose mission is to advance the education, training and careers of people from underrepresented groups in the fields of skilled technical workers and as business owners in the residential construction industry.

Through a combination of competitive benefits and educational programs, we believe that we positively contribute to the well-being of our associates and the communities in which they live and work. Our benefits packages include medical, dental, and vision coverage, as well as health savings accounts, life insurance, disability income, 401(k) savings plan with a company match and other assistance and wellness programs. Together, these benefits help keep our associates and their dependents healthy, while giving them tax-advantaged ways to save for retirement and establish long-term financial security. This package of programs is routinely reevaluated in order to meet the changing needs of our associates in our diverse organization.

From the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and throughout, we made the safety of our associates, trade partners and customers our top priority. We were quick to respond with our company wide COVID-19 Prevention, Preparedness & Response Plan and further implemented state-specific COVID-19 plans where required. Our COVID-19 plans were generated and periodically amended following the most current guidance from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as well as state requirements based on the geographic location of our various operations.

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Table of Contents

During fiscal 2021, in light of the Company's successful experience managing the remote working environment due to the pandemic and the recognition of the associated environmental benefits, the Company introduced a hybrid work schedule whereby, once COVID-19 restrictions are lifted and associates anticipate returning to the office, most office associates may work two days a week from home. We believe this change to a hybrid work model will promote a healthier work and home life balance for our associates while simultaneously providing the environmental benefits of having fewer vehicles on the road.

We also have committed considerable resources to furthering our associates' personal and professional growth. We have a repository of over 400 training modules/courses to facilitate these learning sessions in both in-person and virtual settings, including mandatory diversity, ethics, sexual harassment and safety training courses.

Corporate Offices and Available Information

Our corporate offices are located at 90 Matawan Road, Fifth Floor, Matawan, New Jersey 07747 (See Item 2-Properties). Our telephone number is 732-747-7800, and our Internet web site address is www.khov.com. Information available on or through our web site is not a part of this Form 10-K. We make available free of charge through our web site our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(d) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Copies of the Company's Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports are available free of charge upon request. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Business Strategies

Given our belief in the long-term recovery of the homebuilding market, we remain focused on identifying new land parcels, which will allow us to continue to improve our financial performance. For seven consecutive quarters through the third quarter of fiscal 2019, our total number of lots controlled increased as compared to the same period of the prior year. This growth in lot control led to increased community count in fiscal 2019, which along with faster absorption pace per community, allowed us to increase fiscal 2020 deliveries by 15.0% over fiscal 2019, and increased our October 31, 2020 backlog by 55.3% over October 31, 2019. This faster absorption pace continued in fiscal 2021, resulting in a 9.1% increase in deliveries over fiscal 2020 and caused our community count to decrease during the first half of fiscal 2021, however, we have increased our community count in recent months to 124 at October 31, 2021, and expect to continue to grow community count going forward, although it may fluctuate up and down during the first half of fiscal 2022. We continue to see opportunities to purchase land at prices that make economic sense in light of our current sales prices and sales paces and plan to continue actively pursuing such land acquisitions. New land purchases at pricing that we believe will generate appropriate investment returns and drive greater operating efficiencies are needed to sustain profitability. Our continued profitability in fiscal 2021 and our expectations for the future enabled us to reverse a substantial portion of our valuation allowance previously recorded against our deferred tax assets, creating positive equity.

We continue to be focused on maintaining adequate liquidity and evaluating new investment opportunities. Our excess liquidity in fiscal 2021 allowed us to repurchase $180.9 million of senior secured notes in the third and fourth quarters of the fiscal year. In addition to our current focus on liquidity, we intend to continue to focus on our historic key business strategies, as enumerated below. We believe that these strategies separate us from our competitors in the residential homebuilding industry and the adoption, implementation and adherence to these principles will continue to benefit our business.

Our goal is to become a significant builder in each of the selected markets in which we operate, which will enable us to achieve powers and economies of scale and differentiate ourselves from most of our competitors.

As noted above, we offer a broad product array to provide housing to a wide range of customers. Our customers consist of first-time buyers, first-time and second-time move-up buyers, luxury buyers, active lifestyle buyers and empty nesters. Our diverse product array includes single-family detached homes, attached townhomes and condominiums, urban infill and active lifestyle homes.

We are committed to customer satisfaction and quality in the homes that we build. We recognize that our future success rests in the ability to deliver quality homes to satisfied customers. We seek to expand our commitment to customer service through a variety of quality initiatives. In addition, our focus remains on attracting and developing quality associates. See "Human Capital" above for further discussion.

We focus on achieving high return on invested capital. Each new community is evaluated based on its ability to meet or exceed internal rate of return requirements. Our belief is that the best way to create lasting value for our shareholders is through a strong focus on return on invested capital.

We prefer to use a risk-averse land acquisition strategy. We attempt to acquire land with a minimum cash investment and negotiate takedown options, thereby limiting the financial exposure to the amounts invested in property and predevelopment costs. This approach significantly reduces our risk and generally allows us to obtain necessary development approvals before acquisition of the land.

Our strategy includes homebuilding and land development joint ventures as a means of controlling lot positions, expanding our market opportunities, establishing strategic alliances, reducing our risk profile, leveraging our capital base and enhancing our returns on capital. Our homebuilding joint ventures are generally entered into with third-party investors to develop land and construct homes that are sold directly to home buyers. Our land development joint ventures include those with developers and other homebuilders, as well as financial investors to develop finished lots for sale to the joint venture's members or other third parties.

We manage our financial services operations to better serve all of our home buyers. Our current mortgage financing and title service operations enhance our contact with customers and allow us to coordinate the home-buying experience from beginning to end.

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Operating Policies and Procedures

We attempt to reduce the effect of certain risks inherent in the housing industry through the following policies and procedures:

Training - Our training is designed to provide our associates with the knowledge, attitudes, skills and habits necessary to succeed in their jobs. Our training department regularly conducts in-person, online or webinar training in sales, construction, administration and managerial skills.

Land Acquisition, Planning, and Development - Before entering into a contract to acquire land, we complete extensive comparative studies and analyses which assist us in evaluating the economic feasibility of such land acquisition. We generally follow a policy of acquiring options to purchase land for future community developments.

Where possible, we acquire land for future development through the use of land options, which need not be exercised before the completion of the regulatory approval process. We attempt to structure these options with flexible takedown schedules rather than with an obligation to take down the entire parcel upon receiving regulatory approval. If we are unable to negotiate flexible takedown schedules, we will buy parcels in a single bulk purchase. Additionally, we purchase improved lots in certain markets by acquiring a small number of improved lots with an option on additional lots. This allows us to minimize the economic costs and risks of carrying a large land inventory, while maintaining our ability to commence new developments during favorable market periods.

Our option and purchase agreements are typically subject to numerous conditions, including, but not limited to, our ability to obtain necessary governmental approvals for the proposed community. Generally, the deposit on the agreement will be returned to us if all approvals are not obtained, although predevelopment costs may not be recoverable. By paying an additional nonrefundable deposit, we have the right to extend a significant number of our options for varying periods of time. In most instances, we have the right to cancel any of our land option agreements by forfeiture of our deposit on the agreement. In fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, rather than purchase additional lots in underperforming communities, we took advantage of this right and walked away from 3,201 lots, 3,900 lots and 5,153 lots, respectively, out of 23,624 total lots, 20,204 total lots and 23,157 total lots, respectively, under option, resulting in pretax charges of $1.6 million, $6.8 million and $3.6 million, respectively.

Design - Our residential communities are generally located in urban and suburban areas easily accessible through public and personal transportation. Our communities are designed as neighborhoods that fit existing land characteristics. We strive to create diversity within the overall planned community by offering a mix of homes with differing architecture, textures and colors. Recreational amenities, such as swimming pools, tennis courts, clubhouses, open areas and tot lots, are frequently included.

Construction - We design and supervise the development and building of our communities. Our homes are constructed according to standardized prototypes, which are designed and engineered to provide innovative product design while attempting to minimize costs of construction. We generally employ subcontractors for the installation of site improvements and construction of homes. Agreements with subcontractors are generally short term and provide for a fixed price for labor and materials. We rigorously control costs through the use of computerized monitoring systems.

Because of the risks involved in speculative building, our general policy is to construct an attached condominium or townhouse building only after signing contracts for the sale of at least 50% of the homes in that building. A majority of our single-family detached homes are constructed after the signing of a sales contract and mortgage approval has been obtained. This limits the buildup of inventory of unsold homes and the costs of maintaining and carrying that inventory.

Materials and Subcontractors - We attempt to maintain efficient operations by utilizing standardized materials available from a variety of sources. In addition, we generally contract with subcontractors to construct our homes. We have reduced construction and administrative costs by consolidating the number of vendors serving certain markets and by executing national purchasing contracts with select vendors. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, we have experienced construction delays due to shortages in the supply of materials, as well as labor shortages in all of our markets. The impact and the particular materials associated with the delays is varied from market to market, and we are currently experiencing increased construction cycle times by 45-60 days in many of our markets, but such timeframes could be elongated. We cannot predict the extent to which shortages in necessary materials or labor will continue or re-occur in our markets in the future.

Marketing and Sales - Our homes in residential communities are sold principally through on-site sales offices. In order to respond to our customers' needs and trends in housing design, we rely upon our internal market research group to analyze information gathered from, among other sources, buyer profiles, exit interviews at model sites, focus groups and demographic databases. We make use of our website, internet, newspaper, radio, television, magazine, billboard, video and direct mail advertising, special and promotional events, illustrated brochures and full-sized and scale model homes in our comprehensive marketing program. In addition, we have home design galleries in our Florida, Ohio, South Carolina and Virginia markets, which offer a wide range of customer options to satisfy individual customer tastes.

In fiscal 2019, we established a national call center which is responsible for follow up generated by our web site and our digital marketing efforts. This call center continues to be a critical sales tool since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The call center supports our ability to swiftly respond to incoming customer leads, schedule and conduct virtual tours and video chats, as well as set up in person model home tours.

Customer Service and Quality Control - In many of our markets, associates are responsible for customer service and preclosing quality control inspections as well as responding to post-closing customer needs. Prior to closing, each home is inspected and any necessary completion work is undertaken by us or our subcontractors. Our homes are enrolled in a standard limited warranty program which, in general, provides a homebuyer with a limited warranty for the home's materials and workmanship which follows each state's applicable statute of repose. All of the warranties contain standard exceptions, including, but not limited to, damage caused by the customer.

Customer Financing - We sell our homes to customers who generally finance their purchases through mortgages. Our financial services segment provides our customers with competitive financing and coordinates and expedites the loan origination transaction through the steps of loan application, loan approval, and closing and title services. We originate loans in each of the states in which we build homes. We believe that our ability to offer financing to customers on competitive terms as a part of the sales process is an important factor in completing sales.

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During the year ended October 31, 2021, for the markets in which our mortgage subsidiaries originated loans, 8.5% of our home buyers paid in cash and 68.3% of our noncash home buyers obtained mortgages from our mortgage banking subsidiary. The loans we originated in fiscal 2021 were 71.9% prime and 27.4% Federal Housing Administration/Veterans Affairs ("FHA/VA"). The remaining 0.7% of our loan originations represent loans which exceed conforming conventions.

We sell virtually all of the loans and loan-servicing rights that we originate within a short period of time. Loans are sold either individually or against forward commitments to institutional investors, including banks, mortgage banking firms, and savings and loan associations.

Residential Development Activities

Our residential development activities include site planning and engineering, obtaining environmental and other regulatory approvals and constructing roads, sewer, water, and drainage facilities, recreational facilities, and other amenities and marketing and selling homes. These activities are performed by our associates, together with independent architects, consultants and contractors. Our associates also carry out long-term planning of communities. A residential development generally includes single-family detached homes and/or a number of residential buildings containing from two to 24 individual homes per building, together with amenities, such as club houses, swimming pools, tennis courts, tot lots and open areas.

Current base prices for our homes in contract backlog at October 31, 2021, range from $578,000 to $1,200,000 in the Northeast, from $220,000 to $1,120,000 in the Mid-Atlantic, from $173,000 to $680,000 in the Midwest, from $251,000 to $1,273,000 in the Southeast, from $239,000 to $803,000 in the Southwest and from $308,000 to $1,063,000 in the West. Closings generally occur and are typically reflected in revenues within six to nine months of when sales contracts are signed.

Information on homes delivered by segment for the year ended October 31, 2021, is set forth below:

Housing

Homes

(Housing revenue in thousands)

Revenues

Delivered

Average Price

Northeast

$ 140,212 201 $ 697,572

Mid-Atlantic

465,432 849 548,212

Midwest

248,531 773 321,515

Southeast

276,207 602 458,816

Southwest

902,248 2,531 356,479

West

641,080 1,248 513,686

Consolidated total

$ 2,673,710 6,204 $ 430,966

Unconsolidated joint ventures (1)

$ 345,793 589 $ 587,085

(1) Represents housing revenues and home deliveries for our unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures for the period. We provide this data as a supplement to our consolidated results as an indicator of the volume managed in our unconsolidated joint ventures. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of our unconsolidated joint ventures.

The value of our net sales contracts, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, increased 2.6% to $2.9 billion for the year ended October 31, 2021 from $2.8 billion for the year ended October 31, 2020, while the number of homes contracted decreased 13.4% to 6,023 in fiscal 2021 from 6,953 in fiscal 2020. The decrease in the number of homes contracted occurred along with a 14.8% decrease in the average number of open-for-sale communities from 128 for fiscal 2020 to 109 for fiscal 2021. However, we ended fiscal 2021 with 124 active selling communities. We contracted an average of 55.3 homes per average active selling community in fiscal 2021 compared to 54.3 homes per average active selling community in fiscal 2020, a 1.8% increase in sales pace per community for fiscal 2021.

Information on the value of net sales contracts by segment for the years ended October 31, 2021 and 2020, is set forth below:

Percentage of

(Value of net sales contracts in thousands)

2021

2020

Change

Northeast

$ 196,496 $ 171,181 14.8 %

Mid-Atlantic

541,684 510,229 6.2 %

Midwest

273,459 272,170 0.5 %

Southeast

320,485 270,277 18.6 %

Southwest

1,001,844 872,630 14.8 %

West

553,624 717,973 (22.9 )%

Consolidated total

$ 2,887,592 $ 2,814,460 2.6 %

Unconsolidated joint ventures(1)

$ 536,597 $ 571,926 (6.2 )%

(1) Represents net contract dollars for our unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures for the period. We provide this data as a supplement to our consolidated results as an indicator of the volume managed in our unconsolidated joint ventures. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of our unconsolidated joint ventures.

The following table summarizes our active selling communities under development as of October 31, 2021. The contracted not delivered and remaining homes available in our active selling communities are included in the consolidated total homesites under the total residential real estate chart in Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

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Active Selling Communities

Contracted

Remaining

Approved

Homes

Not

Homes

Communities

Homes

Delivered

Delivered(1)

Available(2)

Northeast

6 871 50 172 649

Mid-Atlantic

20 3,788 1,628 508 1,652

Midwest

8 2,107 844 605 658

Southeast

22 2,601 865 421 1,315

Southwest

53 8,924 4,196 1,076 3,652

West

15 3,661 1,436 465 1,760

Total

124 21,952 9,019 3,247 9,686

(1)

Includes 254 home sites under option.

(2)

Of the total remaining homes available, 291 were under construction or completed (including 104 models and sales offices), and 5,053 were under option.

Backlog

At October 31, 2021 and 2020, including unconsolidated joint ventures, we had a backlog of signed contracts for 5,535 homes and 4,820 homes, respectively, representing a 14.8% increase, with sales values aggregating $2.2 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively. The majority of our backlog at October 31, 2021 is expected to be completed and closed within the next six to nine months. At November 30, 2021 and 2020, our backlog of signed contracts, including unconsolidated joint ventures, was 5,820 homes and 5,089 homes, respectively, with sales values aggregating $2.3 billion and $1.9 billion, respectively. For information on our backlog excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, see the table on page 34 under Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results of Operations -Homebuilding."

Sales of our homes typically are made pursuant to a standard sales contract that provides the customer with a statutorily mandated right of rescission for a period ranging up to 15 days after execution. This contract requires a nominal customer deposit at the time of signing. In addition, in the Northeast, and some sections of the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest, we typically obtain an additional 5% to 10% down payment due within 30 to 60 days after signing. In most markets, an additional deposit is required when a customer selects and commits to optional upgrades in the home. The contract may include a financing contingency, which permits customers to cancel their obligation in the event mortgage financing at prevailing interest rates (including financing arranged or provided by us) is unobtainable within the period specified in the contract. This contingency period typically is four to eight weeks following the date of execution of the contract. When housing values decline in certain markets, some customers cancel their contracts and forfeit their deposits. Cancellation rates are discussed further in Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Sales contracts are included in backlog once the sales contract is signed by the customer, which in some cases includes contracts that are in the rescission or cancellation periods. However, revenues from sales of homes are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, when title to the home is conveyed to the buyer, adequate initial and continuing investments have been received, and there is no continued involvement.

Residential Land Inventory in Planning

It is our objective to control a supply of land, primarily through options, whenever possible, consistent with anticipated homebuilding requirements in each of our housing markets. Controlled land (land owned and under option) as of October 31, 2021, exclusive of communities under development described above under "Active Selling Communities" and excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, is summarized in the following table. The proposed developable home sites in communities in planning are included in the 31,243 consolidated total home sites under the total residential real estate table in Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" on page 29.

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Communities in Planning

Total

Number

Proposed

Land

of Proposed

Developable

Option

Book

(Dollars in thousands)

Communities

Home Sites

Price

Value(1)

Northeast:

Under option

28 2,525 $ 176,020 $ 14,532

Owned

- - $ -

Total

28 2,525 $ 14,532

Mid-Atlantic:

Under option

33 4,969 $ 407,252 $ 15,750

Owned

8 1,114 $ 36,249

Total

41 6,083 $ 51,999

Midwest:

Under option

9 1,091 $ 48,991 $ 250

Owned

3 29 $ 330

Total

12 1,120 $ 580

Southeast:

Under option

13 1,450 $ 65,214 $ 1,904

Owned

8 593 $ 27,702

Total

21 2,043 $ 29,606

Southwest:

Under option

45 4,502 $ 246,511 $ 19,225

Owned

2 178 $ 7,999

Total

47 4,680 $ 27,224

West:

Under option

7 579 $ 57,706 $ 7,312

Owned

9 1,280 $ 4,739

Total

16 1,859 $ 12,051

Totals:

Under option

135 15,116 $ 1,001,694 $ 58,973

Owned

30 3,194 $ 77,019

Combined total

165 18,310 $ 135,992

(1)

Properties under option also include costs incurred on properties not under option but which are under evaluation. For properties under option, as of October 31, 2021, option fees and deposits aggregated approximately $45.2 million. As of October 31, 2021, we spent an additional $13.8 million in nonrefundable predevelopment costs on such properties, including properties not under option but under evaluation.

We either option or acquire improved or unimproved home sites from land developers or other sellers. Under a typical agreement with the land developer, we purchase a minimal number of home sites. The balance of the home sites to be purchased is covered under an option agreement or a nonrecourse purchase agreement. During a declining homebuilding market, we typically decide to mothball (or stop development on) certain communities where we have determined that current market conditions did not justify further investment at that time. When we decide to mothball a community, the inventory is reclassified on our Consolidated Balance Sheets from Sold and unsold homes and lots under development to Land and land options held for future development or sale. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on mothballed communities. For additional financial information regarding our homebuilding segments, see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Raw Materials

The homebuilding industry has from time to time experienced raw material and labor shortages. In particular, shortages and fluctuations in the price of lumber or in other important raw materials could result in delays in the start or completion of or increase the cost of developing one or more of our residential communities. We attempt to maintain efficient operations by utilizing standardized materials available from a variety of sources. In addition, we generally contract with subcontractors to construct our homes. We have reduced construction and administrative costs by consolidating the number of vendors serving certain markets and by executing national purchasing contracts with select vendors. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, we have experienced construction delays due to shortages in the supply of materials, as well as labor shortages in all of our markets.Additionally, we experienced a significant increase in lumber prices during fiscal 2021, although we have recently seen prices start to decrease. We cannot predict, however, the extent to which shortages in necessary raw materials or labor may occur in the future.

Seasonality

Our business is seasonal in nature and, historically, weather-related problems, typically in the fall, late winter and early spring, can delay starts or closings and increase costs.

Competition

Our homebuilding operations are highly competitive. We are among the top 15 homebuilders in the United States in both homebuilding revenues and home deliveries. We compete with numerous real estate developers in each of the geographic areas in which we operate. Our competition ranges from small local builders to larger regional builders to publicly owned builders and developers, some of which have greater sales and financial resources than we do. Previously owned homes and the availability of rental housing provide additional competition. We compete primarily on the basis of reputation, price, location, design, quality, service and amenities.

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Regulation and Environmental Matters

We are subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations that affect the development of land and home building, sales and customer financing processes concerning zoning, building design, construction, and similar matters, including local regulations which impose restrictive zoning and density requirements in order to limit the number of homes that can eventually be built within the boundaries of a particular locality. In addition, we are subject to registration and filing requirements in connection with the construction, advertisement and sale of our communities in certain states and localities in which we operate even if all necessary government approvals have been obtained. We may also be subject to periodic delays or may be precluded entirely from developing communities due to building moratoriums that could be implemented in the future in the states in which we operate. Generally, such moratoriums relate to insufficient water or sewerage facilities or inadequate road capacity.

In addition, some state and local governments in markets where we operate have approved, and others may approve, slow-growth, or no-growth initiatives that could negatively affect the availability of land and building opportunities within those areas. Approval of these initiatives could adversely affect our ability to build and sell homes in the affected markets and/or could require the satisfaction of additional administrative and regulatory requirements, which could result in slowing the progress or increasing the costs of our homebuilding operations in these markets. Any such delays or costs could have a negative effect on our future revenues and earnings.

We are also subject to a variety of local, state, federal and foreign laws and regulations concerning protection of health and the environment, including those regulating the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, the management of storm water runoff at construction sites, the handling, use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances, impacts to wetlands and other sensitive environments, and the remediation of contamination at properties that we have owned or developed or currently own or are developing ("environmental laws"). The particular environmental laws which apply to any given community vary greatly according to the community site, the site's environmental conditions and the present and former uses of the site. See Risk Factors - "Homebuilders are subject to a number of federal, local, state, and foreign laws and regulations concerning the development of land, the homebuilding, sales, and customer financing processes and the protection of the environment, which can cause us to incur delays and costs associated with compliance and which can prohibit or restrict our activity in some regions or areas", Item 3 "Legal Proceedings" and Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Despite our past ability to obtain necessary permits and approvals for our communities, we anticipate that increasingly stringent requirements will be imposed on developers and homebuilders in the future. Although we cannot reliably predict the extent of any effect these requirements may have on us, they could result in time-consuming and expensive compliance programs and in substantial expenditures, which could cause delays and increase our cost of operations. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained is dependent upon many factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as changes in policies, rules and regulations and their interpretation and application.

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ITEM 1A

RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the following risks in addition to the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto.

Risk Relating to Our Business and Industry

The homebuilding industry is significantly affected by changes in general and local economic conditions and real estate markets, which could affect our ability to build homes at prices our customers are willing or able to pay, could reduce profits that may not be recaptured, could result in cancellation of sales contracts, and could affect our liquidity.

The homebuilding industry is cyclical, has from time to time experienced significant difficulties, and is significantly affected by changes in general and local economic conditions such as:

Employment levels and wage and job growth;

Labor shortages and increasing labor and materials costs, including because of changes in immigration laws and trends in labor migration;

Availability and affordability of financing for home buyers;

Interest rates;

Adverse changes in tax laws;

Regulatory changes;

Foreclosure rates;

Inflation;

Consumer confidence and spending;

Housing demand in general and for our particular community locations and product designs, as well as consumer interest in purchasing a home compared to other housing alternatives;

Population growth and demographic trends; and

Availability of water supply in locations in which we operate.

Turmoil in the financial markets could affect our liquidity. In addition, our cash balances are primarily invested in short-term government-backed instruments. The remaining cash balances are held at numerous financial institutions and may, at times, exceed insurable amounts. We seek to mitigate this risk by depositing our cash in major financial institutions and diversifying our investments. In addition, our homebuilding operations often require us to obtain letters of credit. We have certain stand-alone letter of credit facilities and agreements pursuant to which letters of credit are issued. However, we may need additional letters of credit above the amounts provided under these facilities and letters of credit may not be issued under our current senior secured revolving credit facility. If we are unable to obtain such additional letters of credit as needed to operate our business, we would be adversely affected.

In addition, geopolitical events, acts of war or terrorism, threats to national security, civil unrest, any outbreak or escalation of hostilities throughout the world and health pandemics may have a substantial impact on the economy, consumer confidence, the housing market, our associates and our customers.

The difficulties described above could cause us to take longer and incur more costs to build our homes. In addition, our insurance may not fully cover business interruptions or losses caused by weather conditions and man-made or natural disasters and we may not be able to recapture increased costs by raising prices in many cases because we fix our prices up to 12 months in advance of delivery by signing home sales contracts. Some home buyers may also cancel or not honor their home sales contracts altogether.

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Raw material and labor shortages and price fluctuations could delay or increase the cost of home construction and adversely affect our operating results.

The homebuilding industry is vulnerable to raw material and labor shortages and has from time to time experienced such shortages. In particular, shortages and fluctuations in the price of lumber or in other important raw materials could result in delays in the start or completion of, or increase the cost of, developing one or more of our residential communities. Pricing for labor and raw materials can be affected by various national, regional, local, economic and political factors. For example, the federal government has imposed new or increased tariffs or duties on an array of imported materials and goods that are used in connection with the construction and delivery of our homes, including lumber, raising our costs for these items (or products made with them). Such government imposed tariffs and trade regulations on imported building supplies, and retaliatory measures by other countries, may in the future have significant impacts on the cost to construct our homes and on our customers' budgets, including by causing disruptions or shortages in our supply chain. We have experienced some labor shortages, price fluctuations and increased labor costs, including as a result of inflation or wage increases, over the past few years. The cost of labor may be adversely affected by changes in immigration laws and trends in labor migration. In addition, increased demand could increase material and labor costs. Due to significantly increased demand in June and July of 2020, we began increasing home prices which continued throughout fiscal 2021. While we believe that these price increases could offset potential material and labor cost increases, if rising labor and house construction costs substantially outpace increases in the income of potential purchasers we may be limited in our ability to raise home sale prices, which may result in lower gross margins. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, we have experienced construction delays due to shortages in the supply of materials, as well as labor shortages in all of our markets. Additionally, we experienced a significant increase in lumber prices during fiscal 2021, although we have recently seen prices start to decrease.

Our business has been, and could continue to be, materially and adversely disrupted by the present outbreak and worldwide spread of COVID-19 and the measures that international, federal, state and local governments, agencies, law enforcement and/or health authorities implement to address it.

There have been extraordinary and wide-ranging actions taken by international, federal, state and local public health and governmental authorities to contain and combat the outbreak and worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the United States and across the world, including quarantines, curfews, "stay-at-home" or "shelter in place" orders and similar mandates for many individuals to substantially restrict daily activities and for many businesses to curtail or cease normal operations. Such measures undertaken by governmental authorities to address COVID-19 have, and could continue to, significantly disrupt or prevent us from operating our business in the ordinary course for an extended period, and thereby, and/or along with any associated economic and consumer uncertainty, have a material adverse impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Our response to the various governmental measures in mid-March and early April of 2020, including, among other measures, temporarily closing our sales offices, model homes and design studios to the general public and limiting our construction operations, and the response of municipal and private services we rely on, substantially tempered our sales pace. Beginning in May 2020 and continuing through April 30, 2021, our sales pace exceeded our pre-COVID sales pace. The further spread of COVID-19 and a resurgence of the infection rate have led governmental authorities to once again tighten restrictions. Although our sales pace and net contracts have continued to be reasonably strong, similar to pre-COVID sales pace, they have slowed some more recently, and we remain uncertain regarding the full long-term magnitude or duration of the business and economic impacts from the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Further, it remains unknown whether recent, current or anticipated demand will continue once the current COVID-19 pandemic subsides.

Our business could also be negatively impacted over the medium-to-longer term if the lasting disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic decrease consumer confidence generally or more particularly with respect to purchasing a home; cause civil unrest; or precipitate a prolonged economic downturn and/or an extended rise in unemployment or tempering of wage growth, any of which could lower demand for our homes; impair our ability to sell and build homes in a typical manner or at all, generate revenues and cash flows, and/or access our senior secured revolving credit facility or the capital or lending markets (or significantly increase the costs of doing so), as may be necessary to sustain our business; increase the costs or decrease the supply of building materials or the availability of subcontractors and other talent, including as a result of infections or medically necessary or recommended self-quarantining, or governmental mandates to direct production activities to support public health efforts; increase costs of doing business due to the potential impact of vaccine mandates/testing requirements; and/or result in our recognizing charges in future periods, which may be material, for impairments, land option write-offs or restructuring. Such a circumstance could, among other things, exhaust our available liquidity (and ability to access liquidity sources) and/or trigger an acceleration to pay a significant portion or all of our then-outstanding debt obligations, which we may be unable to do. The inherent uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, due in part to the evolving and changing environment, infection levels and governmental directives, concerns about the winter months, public health challenges and progress, and market reactions thereto, also make it more challenging for our management to estimate the future performance of our business and develop strategies to generate growth or achieve our objectives.

Should the adverse impacts described above (or others that are currently unknown) occur or intensify, whether individually or collectively, we would expect to experience, among other things, decreases in our net contracts, homes delivered, average selling prices, revenues and profitability, some of which we experienced in March and April of 2020, and such impacts could be material to our Consolidated Financial Statements in future periods.

The homebuilding industry is significantly affected by changes in weather and other environmental conditions, and resulting governmental regulations.

Weather conditions and man-made or natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods or prolonged precipitation, droughts, fires and other environmental conditions can harm the local homebuilding business. Additionally, the physical impacts of climate change may cause these occurrences to increase in frequency, severity and duration, which can delay home construction, increase costs by damaging inventories, reduce the availability of building materials, and negatively impact the demand for new homes in affected areas, as well as slow down or otherwise impair the ability of utilities and local governmental authorities to provide approvals and service to new housing communities. For example, wildfires in California and hurricanes in Texas and Florida in recent years have at various times caused utility company delays, slowing of our production process, increased cost of operations and also have impacted our sales and construction activity in affected markets during the related time periods. Additionally, other coastal areas where we operate face increased risks of adverse weather or natural disasters.

In addition, there is a growing concern from advocacy groups and the general public that the emissions of greenhouse gases and other human activities have caused, or will cause, significant changes in weather patterns and temperatures and the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Government mandates, standards and regulations enacted in response to these projected climate changes impacts could result in restrictions on land development in certain areas or increased energy, transportation and raw material costs that may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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A significant downturn in the homebuilding industry could materially and adversely affect our business.

The homebuilding industry experienced a significant and sustained downturn that began in 2007, during which the lowest volumes of housing starts were significantly below troughs in previous downturns. This downturn resulted in an industry-wide softening of demand for new homes due to a lack of consumer confidence, decreased availability of mortgage financing, and large supplies of resale and new home inventories, among other factors. In addition, an oversupply of alternatives to new homes, such as rental properties, resale homes and foreclosures, depressed prices and reduced margins for the sale of new homes. Industry conditions had a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations in fiscal years 2007 through 2011. Further, we had substantially increased our inventory through fiscal 2006, which required significant cash outlays and which increased our price and margin exposure as we worked through this inventory. If the homebuilding industry experiences another significant or sustained downturn, it would materially adversely affect our business and results of operations in future years.

Our business is seasonal in nature and our quarterly operating results fluctuate.

Our quarterly operating results generally fluctuate by season. The construction of a customer's home typically begins after signing the agreement of sale and can take six to nine months or more to complete. Weather-related problems, typically in the fall, winter and early spring, can delay starts or closings and increase costs and thus reduce profitability. In addition, delays in opening communities could have an adverse effect on our sales and revenues. Due to these factors, our quarterly operating results will likely continue to fluctuate.

Our success depends on the availability of suitable undeveloped land and improved lots at acceptable prices and our having sufficient liquidity to fund such investments.

Our success in developing land and in building and selling homes depends in part upon the continued availability of suitable undeveloped land and improved lots at acceptable prices. The homebuilding industry is highly competitive for land that is suitable for residential development and the availability of undeveloped land and improved lots for purchase at favorable prices depends on a number of factors outside of our control, including the risk of competitive overbidding on land and lots, geographical or topographical constraints and restrictive governmental regulation. Should suitable land opportunities become less available, our ability to implement our strategies and operational actions would be limited and the number of homes we may be able to build and sell would be reduced, which would reduce revenue and profits. In addition, our ability to make land purchases will depend upon us having sufficient liquidity to fund such purchases. We may be at a disadvantage in competing for land compared to others who have more substantial cash resources.

We rely on subcontractors to construct our homes and may incur costs or losses if these subcontractors fail to properly construct our homes or manage and pay their employees, or if products supplied to us by subcontractors are defective.

We engage subcontractors to perform the actual construction of our homes and, in some cases, to select and obtain building materials. Therefore, the timing and quality of our construction depends on the availability, skill, and cost of our subcontractors. Despite our quality control efforts, we may discover that our subcontractors failed to properly construct our homes or may use defective materials, which, if widely used in our business, could result in the need to perform extensive repairs to large numbers of homes. The occurrence of such events could require us to repair the homes in accordance with our standards and as required by law. The cost of complying with our warranty obligations may be significant if we are unable to recover the cost of repairs from subcontractors, materials suppliers and insurers. In addition, the cost of satisfying our legal obligations in these instances may be significant, and we may be unable to recover the cost of repair from subcontractors and insurers.

We also can suffer damage to our reputation, and may be exposed to possible liability, if subcontractors fail to comply with applicable laws, including laws involving actions or matters that are not within our control. When we learn about possibly improper practices by subcontractors, we attempt to cause the subcontractors to discontinue them and may terminate the use of such subcontractors. However, attempts at mitigation may not avoid claims against us relating to actions of or matters relating to our subcontractors that are out of our control. For example, although we do not have the ability to control what these independent subcontractors pay their own employees, or their own subcontractors, or the work rules they impose on such personnel, federal and state governmental agencies, including the U.S. National Labor Relations Board, have sought, and may in the future seek, to hold contracting parties like us responsible for subcontractors' violations of wage and hour laws, or workers' compensation, collective bargaining and/or other employment-related obligations related to subcontractors' workforces. Governmental agency determinations or attempts by others to make us responsible for subcontractors' labor practices or obligations, could create substantial adverse exposure for us in these types of situations even though not within our control.

Changes in economic and market conditions could result in the sale of homes at a loss or holding land in inventory longer than planned, the cost of which can be significant.

Land inventory risk can be substantial for homebuilders. We must continuously seek and make acquisitions of land for expansion into new markets and for replacement and expansion of land inventory within our current markets. We incur many costs even before we begin to build homes in a community. Depending on the stage of development of a land parcel when we acquire it, these may include costs of preparing land, finishing and entitling lots, installing roads, sewers, water systems and other utilities, taxes and other costs related to ownership of the land on which we plan to build homes. The market value of undeveloped land, buildable lots and housing inventories can fluctuate significantly as a result of changing economic and market conditions. In the event of significant changes in economic or market conditions, we may have to sell homes at a loss or hold land in inventory longer than planned. In the case of land options, we could choose not to exercise them, in which case we would write-off the value of these options. Inventory carrying costs can be significant and can result in losses in a poorly performing project or market. The assessment of communities for indication of impairment is performed quarterly. While we consider available information to determine what we believe to be our best estimates as of the reporting period, these estimates are subject to change in future reporting periods as facts and circumstances change. See Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation-Critical Accounting Policies." If market conditions significantly worsen, additional inventory impairment losses and land option write-offs will likely be necessary.

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We conduct a significant portion of our business in Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas and Virginia, and accordingly, regional factors affecting home sales and activities in these markets may have a large impact on our results of operations.

We presently conduct a significant portion of our business in Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas and Virginia, which subjects us to risks associated with the regional and local economies of these markets. Home prices and sales activities in these markets and in most of the other markets in which we operate have declined from time to time, particularly as a result of slow economic growth. These markets may also depend, to a degree, on certain sectors of the economy, and any declines in those sectors may impact home sales and activities in that region. For example, to the extent the oil and gas industries, which can be very volatile, are negatively impacted by declining commodity prices, climate change, legislation or other factors, it could result in reduced employment, or other negative economic consequences, which in turn could adversely impact our home sales and activities in Texas. Furthermore, precarious economic and budget situations at the state government level may adversely affect the market for our homes in the affected areas. Weather-related or other events impacting these markets could also negatively affect these markets as well as the other markets in which we operate. If home prices and sales activity decline in one or more of the markets in which we operate, our costs may not decline at all or at the same rate and the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Increases in cancellations of agreements of sale could have an adverse effect on our business.

Our backlog reflects agreements of sale with our home buyers for homes that have not yet been delivered. We have received a deposit from our home buyer for each home, which is reflected in our backlog, and we generally have the right to retain the deposit if the home buyer does not complete the purchase. In some situations, however, a home buyer may cancel the agreement of sale and receive a complete or partial refund of the deposit for reasons such as state and local law, an inability to obtain mortgage financing at prevailing interest rates (including financing arranged or provided by us), an inability to sell the current home, or our inability to complete and deliver the new home within the specified time. At October 31, 2021, including unconsolidated joint ventures, we had a backlog of signed contracts for 5,535 homes with a sales value aggregating $2.2 billion. If mortgage financing becomes less accessible, or if economic conditions deteriorate, more home buyers may cancel their agreements of sale with us, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Interest rates have been low compared to most historical periods over the last several years and may increase. Because almost all of our customers require mortgage financing, increases in interest rates or the decreased availability of mortgage financing could impair the affordability of our homes, lower demand for our products, limit our marketing effectiveness and limit our ability to fully realize our backlog.

Virtually all of our customers finance their acquisitions through lenders providing mortgage financing. Mortgage rates have generally remained low compared to most historical periods for the last several years, which has made the homes we sell more affordable. We cannot predict whether interest rates will continue to fall, remain low or rise. Increases in interest rates (or the perception that interest rates will rise, including as a result of government actions), increases in the costs to obtain mortgages or decreases in availability of mortgage financing could lower demand for new homes because of the increased monthly mortgage costs and cash required to close on mortgages to potential home buyers. Even if potential customers do not need financing, changes in interest rates and mortgage availability could make it harder for them to sell their existing homes to potential buyers who need financing. This could prevent or limit our ability to attract new customers as well as our ability to fully realize our backlog because our sales contracts generally include a financing contingency. Financing contingencies permit the customer to cancel his/her obligation in the event mortgage financing at prevailing interest rates, including financing arranged or provided by us, is unobtainable within the period specified in the contract. This contingency period is typically four to eight weeks following the date of execution of the sales contract. We believe that the availability of mortgage financing, including through federal government agencies or government-sponsored enterprises (such as Federal National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and FHA/VA financing), is an important factor in marketing many of our homes. Any limitations or restrictions on the availability of mortgage financing (including due to any failure of lawmakers to agree on a budget or appropriation legislation to fund relevant programs or operations) could reduce our sales. Further, if we are unable to originate mortgages for any reason going forward, our customers may experience significant mortgage loan funding issues, which could have a material impact on our homebuilding business and our consolidated financial statements.

Inflation may adversely affect us by increasing costs beyond what we can recover through price increases.

Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of land, materials and labor. In addition, inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates. In an inflationary environment, such as the current economic environment, depending on homebuilding industry and other economic conditions, we may be unable to raise home prices enough to keep up with the rate of inflation, which would reduce our profit margins. Given the inflation rates in fiscal year 2021, we have experienced, and continue to experience, increases in the prices of land, labor and materials. Continued inflationary pressures could impact our profitability.

Increases in the after-tax costs of owning a home could prevent potential customers from buying our homes and adversely affect our business or financial results.

Significant expenses of owning a home, including mortgage interest expenses and real estate taxes, have historically been deductible expenses for an individual's federal, and in some cases state, income taxes, subject to limitations under tax law and policy. The "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" which was signed into law in December 2017 includes provisions which impose significant limitations with respect to these income tax deductions. For instance, the annual deduction for real estate taxes and state and local income taxes (or sales taxes in lieu of income taxes) is now generally limited to $10,000. Proposed legislation that was passed by the House of Representatives in November 2021 (the "Build Back Better Act") would generally raise this limit to $80,000 through 2030, but there can be no assurance that this proposed legislation will be enacted and, even if enacted, there may be changes with respect thereto (i.e., that would modify the limit) prior to enactment. Furthermore, through the end of 2025, the deduction for mortgage interest is generally only available with respect to the first $750,000 of a new mortgage and there is no longer a federal deduction for interest on home equity loans. In addition, if the federal government or a state government further changes its income tax laws to further eliminate or substantially limit these income tax deductions, the after-tax cost of owning a new home would further increase for many of our potential customers. The loss or reduction of these homeowner tax deductions that have historically been available has and could further reduce the perceived affordability of homeownership, and therefore the demand for and sales price of new homes, including ours, particularly in states with higher state income taxes or home prices, such as in California and New Jersey. In addition, increases in property tax rates or fees on developers by local governmental authorities, as experienced in response to reduced federal and state funding or to fund local initiatives, such as funding schools or road improvements, or increases in insurance premiums can adversely affect the ability of potential customers to obtain financing or their desire to purchase new homes, and can have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.

Further, existing and prospective regulatory and societal responses to climate change intended to reduce potential climate change impacts may increase the upfront costs of purchasing a home, costs to maintain the home and its systems, energy and utility costs and the cost to obtain homeowner and various hazard and flood insurance, or limit homeowners' ability to obtain these insurance policies altogether. Although these items have had no material effect on our business, they could adversely affect our business in the future.

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Mortgage investors could seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations or warranties.

Our financial services segment originates mortgages, primarily for our homebuilding customers. Substantially all of the mortgage loans originated are sold within a short period of time in the secondary mortgage market on a servicing released, nonrecourse basis, although we remain liable for certain limited representations, such as fraud, and warranties related to loan sales. Accordingly, mortgage investors have in the past and could in the future seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations or warranties. While we believe our reserves are adequate for known losses and projected repurchase requests, given the volatility in the mortgage industry and the uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of these claims, if either actual repurchases or the losses incurred resolving those repurchases exceed our expectations, additional expense may be incurred. We may have significant liabilities in respect of such claims in the future, which could exceed our reserves, and the impact of such claims on our results of operations could be material. Further, an increase in the default rate on the mortgages we originate may adversely affect our ability to sell mortgages or the pricing we receive upon the sale of mortgages.

We compete on several levels with homebuilders that may have greater sales and financial resources, which could hurt future earnings.

We compete not only for home buyers but also for desirable properties, financing, raw materials and skilled labor often within larger subdivisions designed, planned and developed by other homebuilders. Our competitors include other local, regional and national homebuilders, some of which have greater sales and financial resources or more established relationships with suppliers and subcontractors in the markets in which we operate. In addition, we compete with other housing alternatives, such as existing homes and rental housing. In the homebuilding industry, we compete primarily on the basis of reputation, price, location, design, quality, service and amenities. Our financial services segment competes with other mortgage providers, primarily on the basis of fees, interest rates and other features of mortgage loan products.

The competitive conditions in the homebuilding industry together with current market conditions have, and could continue to, result in: difficulty in acquiring suitable land at acceptable prices; increased selling incentives; lower sales; delays in construction; or impairment of our ability to implement our strategies and operational actions. Any of these problems could increase costs and/or lower profit margins.

Utility shortages and outages or rate fluctuations could have an adverse effect on our operations.

In prior years, the areas in which we operate in California have experienced power shortages, including periods without electrical power, as well as significant fluctuations in utility costs. We may incur additional costs and may not be able to complete construction on a timely basis if such power shortages and outages and utility rate fluctuations continue. Furthermore, power shortages and outages and rate fluctuations may adversely affect the regional economies in which we operate, which may reduce demand for our homes. Our operations may be adversely affected if further rate fluctuations and/or power shortages and outages occur in California, the Northeast or in our other markets.

Information technology failures and data security breaches could harm our business.

We use information technology, digital telecommunications and other computer resources to carry out important operational activities and to maintain our business records. In addition, we rely on the systems of third parties, such as third-party vendors. Our computer systems, including our backup systems, and those of the third-parties on whose systems we rely, are subject to damage or interruption from computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, power outages, security breaches (including through phishing attempts, data-theft and cyber-attack), ransomware attacks, usage errors by our associates and catastrophic events, such as fires, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes. As part of our normal business activities, we collect and store certain personal identifying and confidential information relating to our homebuyers, employees, vendors and suppliers, and maintain operational and financial information related to our business. We may share some of this confidential information with our vendors. We rely on our vendors and third-party service providers to maintain effective cybersecurity measures to keep our information secure. If our computer systems and our backup systems, or those of the third-parties on whose systems we rely, are breached, compromised or damaged, or otherwise cease to function properly, we could suffer interruptions in our operations or the misappropriation of proprietary, personal identifying or confidential information, including information about our business partners and home buyers. Our or our vendors' and third-party service providers' failure to maintain the security of the data we are required to protect could result in damage to our reputation, financial obligations to third parties, fines, penalties, regulatory proceedings and private litigation with potentially large costs, and also in deterioration in customers' confidence in us and other competitive disadvantages.

Data protection and privacy laws have been enacted by the U.S. federal and state governments, including the California Consumer Privacy Act, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and the regulatory regime continues to evolve and is increasingly demanding. Many states have passed or are considering privacy and security legislation and there are ongoing discussions regarding a national privacy law. Variations in requirements across other states could present compliance challenges, as well as significant costs related to compliance.

We maintain cybersecurity insurance coverage and have implemented systems and processes intended to secure our information technology systems and prevent unauthorized access to or loss of sensitive, confidential and personal data, including through the use of encryption and authentication technologies. Additionally, we have increased our monitoring capabilities to enhance early detection and rapid response to potential security anomalies. These measures, which require ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become increasingly sophisticated, are costly and may not be effective in preventing or mitigating significant negative occurrences or irregularities in our systems or those of third-parties on whose systems we rely. While, to date, we have not had a significant cybersecurity breach or attack that has a material impact on our business or results of operations, our efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our IT networks and related systems may not be effective and attempted security breaches or disruptions could be successful or damaging.

Negative publicity could adversely affect our reputation and our business, financial results and stock price.

Our reputation and brand are critical to our success.Unfavorable media related to our industry, company, brand, personnel, operations, business performance, or prospects may impact our stock price and the performance of our business, regardless of its accuracy or inaccuracy. The speed at which negative publicity is disseminated has increased dramatically through the use of electronic communication, including social media outlets, websites, "tweets", and blogs. Our success in maintaining and expanding our brand image depends on our ability to adapt to this rapidly changing media environment. Adverse publicity or negative commentary from any media outlets could damage our reputation and reduce the demand for our homes, which would adversely affect our business.

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Risks Related to Our Debt and Liquidity

Our high leverage may restrict our ability to operate, prevent us from fulfilling our obligations, and adversely affect our financial condition.

We have a significant amount of debt.

Our debt (excluding nonrecourse secured debt and debt of our financial subsidiaries), as of October 31, 2021, including the debt of the subsidiaries that guarantee our debt, was $1,254.9 million ($1,248.4 million net of discount and premiums and debt issuance costs). Additionally, we have a $125.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility, which was fully available for borrowing as of October 31, 2021.

Our debt service payments for the year ended October 31, 2021, were $318.8 million, which represented interest incurred and payments on the principal of our debt and do not include principal and interest on nonrecourse secured debt, debt of our financial subsidiaries and fees under our letter of credit and other credit facilities and agreements.

As of October 31, 2021, we had $9.3 million in aggregate outstanding face amount of letters of credit issued under various letter of credit and other credit facilities and agreements, certain of which were collateralized by $9.9 million of cash. Our fees for these letters of credit for the year ended October 31, 2021, which are based on both the used and unused portion of the facilities and agreements, were $0.2 million. We also had substantial contractual commitments and contingent obligations, including $223.8 million of performance bonds as of October 31, 2021. See Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Contractual Obligations."

Our significant amount of debt could have important consequences. For example, it could:

Limit our ability to obtain future financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, or other requirements;

Require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of our debt and reduce our ability to use our cash flow for other purposes, including land investments;

Require us to pay higher interest rates upon refinancing debt if interest rates rise or due to the concentration of debt maturities;

Limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business;

Place us at a competitive disadvantage because we have more debt than some of our competitors;

Limit our ability to implement our strategies and operational actions;

Require us to consider selling some of our assets or debt or equity securities, possibly on unfavorable terms, to satisfy obligations; and

Make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business and general economic conditions.

Our ability to meet our debt service and other obligations will depend upon our future performance. We are engaged in businesses that are substantially affected by changes in economic cycles. Our revenues and earnings vary with the level of general economic activity in the markets we serve. Our businesses are also affected by customer sentiment and financial, political, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. The factors that affect our ability to generate cash can also affect our ability to raise additional funds for these purposes through the sale of equity or debt securities, the refinancing of debt or the sale of assets. Changes in prevailing interest rates may affect our ability to meet our debt service obligations to the extent we have any floating rate indebtedness. A higher interest rate on our debt service obligations could result in lower earnings or increased losses.

Our sources of liquidity are limited and may not be sufficient to meet our needs.

We are largely dependent on our current cash balance and future cash flows from operations (which may not be positive) to enable us to service our indebtedness, to cover our operating expenses and/or to fund our other liquidity needs. Cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2021 and 2020 was $210.2 million and $292.8 million, respectively. Depending on the levels of our land purchases, we could generate positive or negative cash flow in future years. If the current improved market conditions in the homebuilding industry do not continue over the next several years, our cash flows could be insufficient to fund our obligations and support land purchases, and if we cannot buy additional land we would ultimately be unable to generate future revenues from the sale of houses. In addition, we will need to refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity, which we may not be able to do on favorable terms or at all. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations or we are unable to refinance our indebtedness, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful or, if successful, made on desirable terms and may not permit us to meet our debt service obligations. We have also entered into certain cash collateralized letters of credit agreements and facilities that require us to maintain specified amounts of cash in segregated accounts as collateral to support our letters of credit issued thereunder. If our available cash and capital resources are insufficient to meet our debt service and other obligations, we could face liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or the proceeds from the dispositions may not be permitted under the terms of our debt instruments to be used to service indebtedness or may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. For additional information about capital resources and liquidity, see Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Capital Resources and Liquidity."

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Our cash flows, liquidity and consolidated financial statements could be materially and adversely affected if we are unable to obtain letters of credit.

Our homebuilding operations often require us to obtain letters of credit. We have certain stand-alone letter of credit facilities and agreements pursuant to which letters of credit are issued. However, letters of credit may not be issued under our current senior secured revolving credit facility, and we may need additional letters of credit above the amounts provided under these stand-alone facilities and agreements. If we are unable to obtain such additional letters of credit as needed to operate our business, we would be adversely affected.

We may have difficulty in obtaining the additional financing required to operate and develop our business.

Our operations require significant amounts of cash, and we may be required to seek additional capital, whether from sales of debt or equity securities or borrowing additional money, for the future growth and development of our business. The terms and/or availability of additional capital is uncertain. Moreover, the agreements governing our outstanding debt instruments contain provisions that restrict the debt we may incur in the future and our ability to pay dividends on equity. If we are not successful in obtaining sufficient capital, it could reduce our sales and may hinder our future growth and results of operations. In addition, pledging substantially all of our assets to support our senior secured revolving credit facility and our senior secured notes may make it more difficult to raise additional financing in the future.

We could be adversely affected by a negative change in our credit rating.

Our ability to access capital on favorable terms is a key factor in our ability to service our indebtedness to cover our operating expenses and to fund our other liquidity needs. Negative rating actions by credit agencies, including downgrades, may make it more difficult and costly for us to access capital. Therefore, any downgrade by any of the principal credit agencies may exacerbate these difficulties. There can be no assurances that our credit ratings will not be downgraded in the future, whether as a result of deteriorating general economic conditions, a more protracted downturn in the housing industry, failure to successfully implement our operating strategy, the adverse impact on our results of operations or liquidity position of any of the above, or otherwise.

Restrictive covenants in our debt instruments may restrict our and certain of our subsidiaries' ability to operate, and if our financial performance worsens, we may not be able to undertake transactions within the restrictions of our debt instruments.

The indentures governing our outstanding debt securities and our credit facilities impose certain restrictions on our and certain of our subsidiaries' operations and activities. The most significant restrictions relate to debt incurrence (including non-recourse indebtedness), creation of liens, repayment of certain indebtedness prior to its respective stated maturity, sales of assets (including in certain land banking transactions), cash distributions, (including paying dividends on common and preferred stock), capital stock repurchases/exchanges, and investments by us and certain of our subsidiaries (including in joint ventures). Because of these restrictions, we could be prohibited from paying dividends on our common and preferred stock.

The restrictions in our debt instruments could prohibit or restrict our and certain of our subsidiaries' activities, such as undertaking capital raising or restructuring activities or entering into other transactions. In addition, if we fail to comply with these restrictions or to make timely payments on this debt and other material indebtedness, an event of default could occur and our debt under these debt instruments could become due and payable prior to maturity. Any such event of default could lead to cross defaults under certain of our other debt or negatively impact other covenants. In any of these situations, we may be unable to amend the applicable instrument or obtain a waiver without significant additional cost, or at all, and we may be unable to obtain alternative financing. Any such situation could have a material adverse effect on the solvency of the Company.

The terms of our debt instruments allow us to incur additional indebtedness.

Under the terms of our indebtedness under our indentures and credit facilities, we have the ability, subject to our debt covenants, to incur additional amounts of debt, including secured debt. The incurrence of additional indebtedness could magnify the risks described above. In addition, certain obligations, such as standby letters of credit and performance bonds issued in the ordinary course of business, including those issued under our stand-alone letter of credit agreements and facilities, are not considered indebtedness under our debt instruments (and may be secured) and, therefore, are not subject to limits in our debt covenants.

Regulatory and Legal Risks

Homebuilders are subject to a number of federal, local, state, and foreign laws and regulations concerning the development of land and homebuilding, sales and customer financing processes and the protection of the environment, which can cause us to incur delays and costs associated with compliance and which can prohibit or restrict our activity in some regions or areas.

We are subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations that affect the development of land and homebuilding, sales and customer financing processes, including laws and regulations relating to zoning, density, accessibility, anti-discrimination, building standards and mortgage financing. These laws and regulations often provide broad discretion to the administering governmental authorities. This can delay or increase the cost of development or homebuilding. In addition, some state and local governments in markets where we operate have approved, and others may approve, slow-growth or no-growth initiatives that could negatively impact the availability of land and building opportunities within those areas. Approval of these initiatives could adversely affect our ability to build and sell homes in the affected markets and/or could require the satisfaction of additional administrative and regulatory requirements, which could result in slowing the progress or increasing the costs of our homebuilding operations in these markets. Any of the above delays or costs could have a negative effect on our future revenues and earnings.

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We also are subject to a variety of local, state, federal and foreign laws and regulations concerning protection of health and the environment, including those regulating the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, the management of storm water runoff at construction sites, the handling, use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances, impacts to wetlands and other sensitive environments, and the remediation of contamination at properties that we have owned or developed or currently own or are developing ("environmental laws"). The particular environmental laws that apply to a site may vary greatly according to the community site, for example, due to the community, the environmental conditions at or near the site, and the present and former uses of the site. These environmental laws may result in delays, may cause us to incur substantial compliance, remediation and/or other costs, and can prohibit or severely restrict development and homebuilding activity. In addition, noncompliance with these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocations or other sanctions; and contamination or other environmental conditions at or in the vicinity of our developments may result in claims against us for personal injury, property damage or other losses.

We anticipate that increasingly stringent requirements will continue to be imposed on developers and homebuilders in the future. In addition, some of these laws and regulations that significantly affect how certain properties may be developed are contentious, attract intense political attention, and may be subject to significant changes over time. For example, regulations governing wetlands permitting under the federal Clean Water Act have been the subject of extensive rulemakings for many years, resulting in several major joint rulemakings by the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers that have expanded and contracted the scope of wetlands subject to regulation; and such rulemakings have been the subject of many legal challenges, some of which remain pending. It is unclear how these and related developments, including at the state or local level, ultimately may affect the scope of regulated wetlands where we operate. Although we cannot reliably predict the extent of any effect these developments regarding wetlands, or any other requirements that may take effect may have on us, they could result in time-consuming and expensive compliance programs and in substantial expenditures, which could cause delays and increase our cost of operations. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained is dependent upon many factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as changes in policies, rules and regulations and their interpretations and application.

In March 2013, we received a letter from the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") requesting information about our involvement in a housing redevelopment project in Newark, New Jersey that a Company entity undertook during the 1990s. We understand that the development is in the vicinity of a former lead smelter and that tests on soil samples from properties within the development conducted by the EPA showed elevated levels of lead. We also understand that the smelter ceased operations many years before the Company entity involved acquired the properties in the area and carried out the re-development project. We responded to the EPA's request. In August 2013, we were notified that the EPA considers us a potentially responsible party (or "PRP") with respect to the site, that the EPA will clean up the site, and that the EPA is proposing that we fund and/or contribute towards the cleanup of the contamination at the site. We began preliminary discussions with the EPA concerning a possible resolution but do not know the scope or extent of the Company's obligations, if any, that may arise from the site and therefore cannot provide any assurance that this matter will not have a material impact on the Company. The EPA requested additional information in April 2014 and again in March 2017 and the Company responded to the information requests. On May 2, 2018 the EPA sent a letter to the Company entity demanding reimbursement for 100% of the EPA's costs to clean-up the site in the amount of $2.7 million. The Company responded to the EPA's demand letter on June 15, 2018 setting forth the Company's defenses and expressing its willingness to enter into settlement negotiations. Two other PRPs identified by the EPA are now also in negotiations with the EPA and in preliminary negotiations with the Company regarding the site. In the course of negotiations, the EPA informed the Company that the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection ("NJDEP") has also incurred costs remediating part of the site. The EPA has since requested that the three PRPs present a joint settlement offer to the EPA. The Company and the other two PRPs are parties to a series of agreements tolling the statute of limitations on the EPA's claims for reimbursement, most recently extending the date until April 20, 2022. We believe that we have adequate reserves for this matter.

Legal claims not resolved in our favor, such as product liability litigation and warranty claims may be costly.

As discussed in Item 3 - "Legal Proceedings," in the ordinary course of business we are involved in litigation from time to time, including with home owners associations, home buyers and other persons with whom we have relationships. For example, as a homebuilder, we are subject to construction defect and home warranty claims, including moisture intrusion and related claims, arising in the ordinary course of business. Such claims are common in the homebuilding industry and can be costly. For example, in the past we have received construction defect and home warranty claims associated with, and we were involved in a multidistrict litigation concerning, allegedly defective drywall manufactured in China that may have been responsible for noxious smells and accelerated corrosion of certain metals in certain homes we have constructed. We remediated certain homes in response to such claims and settled the litigation.

With regard to certain general liability exposures such as product liability claims, construction defect claims and related claims, assessment of claims and the related liability and reserve estimation process is highly judgmental and subject to a high degree of variability due to uncertainties such as trends in construction defect claims relative to our markets and the types of products we build, claim settlement patterns, insurance industry practices and legal interpretations, among others. Because of the high degree of judgment required in determining these estimated liability amounts, actual future costs could differ significantly from our currently estimated amounts. Furthermore, after claims are asserted for construction defects, it can be difficult to determine the extent to which assertions of such claims will expand geographically. For example, the Company has been a party to litigation in New Jersey concerning alleged defects in construction (see Item 3 - "Legal Proceedings" and Note 18 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended October 31, 2021). In addition, the amount and scope of coverage offered by insurance companies is currently limited, and this coverage may be further restricted and become more costly. If we are not able to obtain adequate insurance against such claims, if the costs associated with such claims significantly exceed the amount of our insurance coverage, or if our insurers do not pay on claims under our policies (whether because of dispute, inability, or otherwise), we may experience losses that could hurt our financial results.

Our financial results could also be adversely affected if we were to experience an unusually high number of claims or unusually severe claims. Our insurance companies have the right to review our claims and claims history, and do so from time to time, and could decline to pay on such claims if such reviews determine the claims did not meet the terms for coverage. Additionally, we may need to significantly increase our construction defect and home warranty reserves as a result of insurance not being available for any of the reasons discussed above, such claims or the results of our annual actuarial study.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure

We conduct certain of our operations through unconsolidated joint ventures with independent third parties in which we do not have a controlling interest. These investments involve risks and are highly illiquid.

We currently operate through a number of unconsolidated homebuilding and land development joint ventures with independent third parties in which we do not have a controlling interest. At October 31, 2021, we had invested an aggregate of $60.9 million in these unconsolidated joint ventures, including net advances to these unconsolidated joint ventures of $2.2 million. In addition, as part of our strategy, we intend to continue to evaluate additional joint venture opportunities; however, we may be limited in pursuing all such desirable opportunities because the indentures governing our outstanding debt securities and our credit facilities impose certain restrictions, among others, on investments by us and certain of our subsidiaries (including in joint ventures).

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These investments involve risks and are highly illiquid. There are a limited number of sources willing to provide acquisition, development and construction financing to land development and homebuilding joint ventures, and if market conditions become more challenging, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain financing for our joint ventures on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, we lack a controlling interest in these joint ventures and, therefore, are usually unable to require that our joint ventures sell assets or return invested capital, make additional capital contributions, or take any other action without the vote of at least one of our venture partners. Therefore, absent partner agreement, we will be unable to liquidate our joint venture investments to generate cash.

Our controlling stockholders are able to exercise significant influence over us.

The combined ownership of members of the Hovnanian family, including Ara K. Hovnanian, our chairman of the board, president, and chief executive officer, through personal holdings, the limited partnership and the limited liability company established for members of Mr. Hovnanian's family and family trusts of Class A and Class B common stock, enables them to exert significant control over us, including power to control the election of the Board of Directors and to approve matters presented to our stockholders. Such holdings represented approximately 55% of the votes that could be cast by the holders of our outstanding Class A and Class B common stock combined as of October 31, 2021. This concentration of ownership may also make some transactions, including mergers or other changes in control, more difficult or impossible without their support. Also, because of their combined voting power, circumstances may occur in which their interests could be in conflict with the interests of other stakeholders.

Our net operating loss carryforwards could be substantially limited if we experience an ownership change as defined in the Internal Revenue Code.

Based on past impairments and our current financial performance, we generated a federal net operating loss carryforward of $1.2 billion through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021, and we may generate net operating loss carryforwards in future years.

Section 382 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), contains rules that limit the ability of a company that undergoes an ownership change, which is generally any change in ownership of more than 50% of its stock over a three-year period, to utilize its net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses recognized in years after the ownership change. These rules generally operate by focusing on ownership shifts among stockholders owning directly or indirectly 5% or more of the stock of a company and any change in ownership arising from a new issuance of stock by the company.

If we undergo an ownership change for purposes of Section 382 as a result of future transactions involving our stock, including purchases or sales of stock between 5% shareholders, our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and to recognize certain built-in losses would be subject to the limitations of Section 382. Depending on the resulting limitation, a significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards could expire before we would be able to use them. A limitation imposed under Section 382 on our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards could have a negative impact on our financial position and results of operations.

The value of our deferred tax assets is also dependent upon the tax rates expected to be in effect at the time the taxable income is expected to be generated. A decrease in enacted corporate tax rates in our major jurisdictions, especially the U.S. federal corporate rate, would decrease the value of our deferred tax assets, which could be material.

Our Board of Directors has adopted, and our shareholders have approved, a shareholder rights plan (the "Rights Plan") designed to preserve shareholder value and the value of certain tax assets primarily associated with net operating loss carryforwards and built-in losses under Section 382 of the Code. The Rights Plan is intended to act as a deterrent to any person or group acquiring 4.9% or more of our outstanding Class A common stock (any such person an "Acquiring Person"), without the approval of the Company's Board of Directors. Subject to the terms, provisions and conditions of the Rights Plan, if and when they become exercisable, each right would entitle its holder to purchase from the Company one ten-thousandth of a share of the Company's Series B Junior Preferred Stock for a specified purchase price (the "purchase price"). The rights will not be exercisable until the earlier of (i) 10 business days after a public announcement by us that a person or group has become an Acquiring Person and (ii) 10 business days after the commencement of a tender or exchange offer by a person or group for 4.9% of the Class A common stock (the "distribution date"). If issued, each fractional share of Series B Junior Preferred Stock would give the stockholder approximately the same dividend, voting and liquidation rights as does one share of the Company's Class A common stock. However, prior to exercise, a right does not give its holder any rights as a stockholder of the Company, including without limitation any dividend, voting or liquidation rights. After the distribution date, each holder of a right, other than rights beneficially owned by the Acquiring Person (which will thereupon become void), will thereafter have the right to receive upon exercise of a right and payment of the purchase price, that number of shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, as the case may be, having a market value of two times the purchase price. After the distribution date, our Board of Directors may exchange the rights (other than rights owned by an Acquiring Person which will have become void), in whole or in part, at an exchange ratio of one share of common stock, or a fractional share of Series B Junior Preferred Stock (or of a share of a similar class or series of Hovnanian's preferred stock having similar rights, preferences and privileges) of equivalent value, per right (subject to adjustment).

In addition, our Restated Certificate of Incorporation restricts certain transfers of our common stock in order to preserve the tax treatment of our net operating loss carryforwards and built-in losses under Section 382 of the Code. Subject to certain exceptions pertaining to pre-existing 5% stockholders and Class B stockholders, the transfer restrictions in our Restated Certificate of Incorporation generally restrict any direct or indirect transfer (such as transfers of the Company's stock that result from the transfer of interests in other entities that own the Company's stock) if the effect would be to: (i) increase the direct or indirect ownership of the Company's stock by any person (or public group) from less than 5% to 5% or more of the Company's stock; (ii) increase the percentage of the Company's stock owned directly or indirectly by a person (or public group) owning or deemed to own 5% or more of the Company's stock; or (iii) create a new "public group" (as defined in the applicable United States Treasury regulations).

We could be adversely impacted by the loss of key management personnel or if we fail to attract qualified personnel.

To a significant degree, our future success depends on the efforts of our senior management, many of whom have been with the Company for a significant number of years, and our ability to attract qualified personnel. Our operations could be adversely affected if key members of our senior management leave the Company or if we cannot attract qualified personnel to manage growth in our business.

ITEM 1B

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

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ITEM 2

PROPERTIES

We rent approximately 63,000 square feet of office space in the Northeast for our corporate headquarters. We own 215,000 square feet of office and warehouse space throughout the Midwest. We lease approximately 314,000 square feet of space for our segments located in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West.

ITEM 3

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The information required with respect to this item can be found under "Commitments and Contingent Liabilities" in Note 18 to our Consolidated Financial Statements found elsewhere in this annual report, which is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.

ITEM 4

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Information on executive officers of the registrant is incorporated herein from Part III, Item 10.

PartII

ITEM 5

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our Class A Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "HOV" and was held by 292 stockholders of record at December 10, 2021. There is no established public trading market for our Class B Common Stock, which was held by 180 stockholders of record at December 10, 2021. If a shareholder desires to sell shares of Class B Common Stock (other than to Permitted Transferees (as defined in the Company's amended Certificate of Incorporation)), such stock must be converted into shares of Class A Common Stock at a one to one conversion rate.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

No shares of our Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock were purchased by or on behalf of the Company or any affiliated purchaser during the fiscal fourth quarter of 2021. The maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under the Company's repurchase plans or programs is 22 thousand.

ITEM 6 Reserved

ITEM 7

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. ("HEI") conducts all of its homebuilding and financial services operations through its subsidiaries (references herein to the "Company," "we," "us" or "our" refer to HEI and its consolidated subsidiaries and should be understood to reflect the consolidated business of HEI's subsidiaries).

Key Performance Indicators

The following key performance indicators are commonly used in the homebuilding industry and by management as a means to better understand our operating performance and trends affecting our business, and compare our performance with the performance of other homebuilders. We believe these key performance indicators also provide useful information to investors in analyzing our performance:

Net contracts is a volume indicator which represents the number of new contracts executed during the period for the purchase of homes, less cancellations of contracts in the same period. The dollar value of net contracts represents the dollars associated with net contracts executed in the period. These values are an indicator of potential future revenues;

Contract backlog is a volume indicator which represents the number of homes that are under contract, but not yet delivered as of the stated date. The dollar value of contract backlog represents the dollar amount of the homes in contract backlog. These values are an indicator of potential future revenues;

Active selling communities is a volume indicator which represents the number of communities which are open for sale with ten or more home sites available as of the end of a period. We identify communities based on product type; therefore at times there are multiple communities at one land site. These values are an indicator of potential revenues;

Net contracts per average active selling community is used to indicate the pace at which homes are being sold (put into contract) in active selling communities and is calculated by dividing the number of net contracts in a period by the average number of active selling communities in the same period. Sales pace is an indicator of market strength and demand; and

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Contract cancellation rates is a volume indicator which represents the number of sales contracts cancelled in the period divided by the number of gross sales contracts executed during the period. Contract cancellation rates as a percentage of backlog is calculated by dividing the number of cancelled contracts in the period by the contract backlog at the beginning of the period. Cancellation rates as compared to prior periods can be an indicator of market strength or weakness.

Overview

Market Conditions and Operating Results

The demand for new and existing homes is dependent on a variety of demographic and economic factors, including job and wage growth, household formation, consumer confidence, mortgage financing, interest rates, inflation and overall housing affordability. In general, at the start of fiscal year 2020, factors including rising levels of household formation, a constrained supply of new and used homes, wage growth, strong employment conditions and mortgage rates that continue to be low by historical standards were contributing to improving conditions for new home sales.

In March 2020, as a result of the initial impact of COVID-19, we experienced adverse business conditions, including a slowdown in customer traffic and sales pace and an increase in cancellations. However, beginning in May 2020, the homebuilding market rapidly improved, due to what we believe is a combination of factors including low interest rates, low inventory levels of existing homes and a general desire for more indoor and outdoor space. During the third quarter and continuing through the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, we returned to our normal activities with respect to land purchases, land development and resuming the construction of unsold homes. As a result, our operating metrics improved significantly in fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, and improved even further in fiscal 2021, as described below.

Our cash position allowed us to spend $698.3 million on land purchases and land development and to repurchase $180.9 million of senior secured notes during fiscal 2021, and still have total liquidity of $380.9 million, including $246.0 million of homebuilding cash and cash equivalents as of October 31, 2021 and $125.0 million of borrowing capacity under our senior secured revolving credit facility as of October 31, 2021.

Additional results for the year ended October 31, 2021 were as follows:

● For the year ended October 31, 2021, sale of homes revenues increased 18.7% as compared to the prior year, as a result of a 9.1% increase in deliveries, from the sustained strong homebuilding market and high demand for new home construction that began in fiscal 2020, along with an increase in average sales price.

● Gross margin percentage increased from 14.7% for the year ended October 31, 2020 to 18.6% for the year ended October 31, 2021, and gross margin percentage, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges, increased from 18.4% for the year ended October 31, 2020 to 21.8% for the year ended October 31, 2021. The increases were primarily due to increases in home prices in virtually all of our markets during fiscal 2021 as a result of the strong housing market.

● Selling, general and administrative costs (including corporate general and administrative expenses) increased $34.8 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 as compared to the prior year. The increase was primarily attributed to a change in volume of our unconsolidated joint venture deliveries, and an increase in compensation expense. The increase in compensation expense was mostly attributed to our long-term incentive programs now forecasted to achieve above target metrics as a result of improved operating results and our higher stock price. Despite the increase in dollars, as a percentage of total revenue, such costs decreased to 9.9% for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to 10.3% for the year ended October 31, 2020.

● Pre-tax income increased to $189.9 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 from pre-tax income of $55.4 million for the year ended October 31, 2020. Net income increased to $607.8 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 (which includes the benefit from the reduction in our deferred tax asset valuation allowance) from net income of $50.9 million for the year ended October 31, 2020. Earnings per share, basic and diluted, increased to $87.50 and $85.86, respectively, for the year ended October 31, 2021, including the benefit from the reduction in our deferred tax asset valuation allowance, compared to earnings per share, basic and diluted of $7.48 and $7.03, respectively, for the year ended October 31, 2020.

● Net contracts per average active selling community increased to 55.3 for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to 54.3 in the prior year. This strong absorption pace resulted in our average active selling communities at October 31, 2021 decreasing by 14.8% compared to October 31, 2020.

● Net contracts decreased 13.4% for the year ended October 31, 2021, compared to the prior year, as a result of the decrease in average active selling communities.

● Contract backlog decreased from 3,402 homes at October 31, 2020 to 3,247 homes at October 31, 2021. However, the dollar value of contract backlog increased to $1.6 billion in connection with the increase in home prices discussed above, representing a 15.4% increase in dollar value compared to the prior year.

Despite the overall improvement during fiscal 2021, labor and material shortages that were initially due to the COVID-19 pandemic have worsened and continued despite resumption of pre-pandemic levels of economic activity while the full magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects remain unknown. We may experience material declines in our net contracts, deliveries, revenues, cash flow and/or profitability during fiscal 2022 and beyond, compared to the corresponding prior-year periods. In addition, if conditions in the overall housing market or in a specific market worsen in the future beyond our current expectations, if future changes in our business strategy significantly affect any key assumptions used in our projections of future cash flows, or if there are material changes in any of the other items we consider in assessing recoverability, we may recognize charges in future periods for inventory impairments related to our current inventory assets or other reorganization activities. Any such charges could be material to our consolidated financial statements.

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Critical Accounting Policies

Management believes that the following critical accounting policies require its most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements:

Income Recognition from Mortgage Loans - Our Financial Services segment originates mortgages, primarily for our homebuilding customers. We use mandatory investor commitments and forward sales of mortgage backed securities ("MBS") to hedge our mortgage-related interest rate exposure on agency and government loans.

We elected the fair value option for our mortgage loans held for sale in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 825, "Financial Instruments," which permits us to measure our loans held for sale at fair value. Management believes that the election of the fair value option for loans held for sale improves financial reporting by mitigating volatility in reported earnings caused by measuring the fair value of the loans and the derivative instruments used to economically hedge them without having to apply complex hedge accounting provisions.

Substantially all of the mortgage loans originated are sold within a short period of time in the secondary mortgage market on a servicing released, nonrecourse basis, although the Company remains liable for certain limited representations, such as fraud, and warranties related to loan sales. Mortgage investors could seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations and warranties. We have established reserves for probable losses. While we believe these reserves are adequate for known losses and projected repurchase requests, given the volatility in the mortgage industry and the uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of these claims, if either actual repurchases or the losses incurred resolving those repurchases exceed our expectations, additional expense may be incurred.

Inventories - Inventories consist of land, land development, home construction costs, capitalized interest, construction overhead and property taxes. Construction costs are accumulated during the period of construction and charged to cost of sales under specific identification methods. Land, land development and common facility costs are allocated based on buildable acres to product types within each community, then charged to cost of sales equally based upon the number of homes to be constructed in each product type.

We record inventories in our consolidated balance sheets at cost unless the inventory is determined to be impaired, in which case the inventory is written down to its fair value. Our inventories consist of the following three components: (1) sold and unsold homes and lots under development, which includes all construction, land, capitalized interest and land development costs related to started homes and land under development in our active communities; (2) land and land options held for future development or sale, which includes all costs related to land in our communities in planning or mothballed communities; and (3) consolidated inventory not owned, which includes all costs related to variable interest entities and other options, which consists primarily of model homes financed with an investor and inventory related to land banking arrangements accounted for as financings.

We decide to mothball (or stop development on) certain communities when we determine that the current performance does not justify further investment at the time. When we decide to mothball a community, the inventory is reclassified on our Consolidated Balance Sheets from "Sold and unsold homes and lots under development" to "Land and land options held for future development or sale." As of October 31, 2021, the net book value associated with our 6 mothballed communities was $4.3 million, net of impairment charges recorded in prior periods of $57.5 million. We regularly review communities to determine if mothballing is appropriate. During fiscal 2021, we did not mothball any additional communities, but we sold four previously mothballed communities and we re-activated two previously mothballed communities and portions of two previously mothballed communities.

We sell and lease back certain of our model homes with the right to participate in the potential profit when each home is sold to a third party at the end of the respective lease. As a result of our continued involvement, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-68, these sale and leaseback transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. Therefore, for purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheets, at October 31, 2021, inventory of $32.5 million was recorded to "Consolidated inventory not owned," with a corresponding amount of $31.5 million recorded to "Liabilities from inventory not owned."

We have land banking arrangements, whereby we sell our land parcels to the land banker and they provide us an option to purchase back finished lots on a quarterly basis. Because of our options to repurchase these parcels, for accounting purposes, in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-70, these transactions are considered financings rather than sales. For purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheets, at October 31, 2021, inventory of $66.2 million was recorded as "Consolidated inventory not owned," with a corresponding amount of $31.3 million recorded to "Liabilities from inventory not owned" for the amount of net cash received from the transactions.

The recoverability of inventories and other long-lived assets is assessed in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360-10, "Property, Plant and Equipment − Overall" ("ASC 360-10"). ASC 360-10 requires long-lived assets, including inventories, held for development to be evaluated for impairment based on undiscounted future cash flows of the assets at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows. As such, we evaluate inventories for impairment at the individual community level, the lowest level of discrete cash flows that we measure.

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We evaluate inventories of communities under development and held for future development for impairment when indicators of potential impairment are present. Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to, decreases in local housing market values, decreases in gross margins or sales absorption rates, decreases in net sales prices (base sales price net of sales incentives), or actual or projected operating or cash flow losses. The assessment of communities for indication of impairment is performed quarterly. As part of this process, we prepare detailed budgets for all of our communities at least semi-annually and identify those communities with a projected operating loss. For those communities with projected losses, we estimate the remaining undiscounted future cash flows and compare those to the carrying value of the community, to determine if the carrying value of the asset is recoverable.

The projected operating profits, losses, or cash flows of each community can be significantly impacted by our estimates of the following:

future base selling prices;

future home sales incentives;

future home construction and land development costs; and

future sales absorption pace and cancellation rates.

These estimates are dependent upon specific market conditions for each community. While we consider available information to determine what we believe to be our best estimates as of the end of a quarterly reporting period, these estimates are subject to change in future reporting periods as facts and circumstances change. Local market-specific conditions that may impact our estimates for a community include:

the intensity of competition within a market, including available home sales prices and home sales incentives offered by our competitors;

the current sales absorption pace for both our communities and competitor communities;

community specific attributes, such as location, availability of lots in the market, desirability and uniqueness of our community, and the size and style of homes currently being offered;

potential for alternative product offerings to respond to local market conditions;

changes by management in the sales strategy of the community;

current local market economic and demographic conditions and related trends of forecasts; and

existing home inventory supplies, including foreclosures and short sales.

These and other local market-specific conditions that may be present are considered by management in preparing projection assumptions for each community. The sales objectives can differ between our communities, even within a given market. For example, facts and circumstances in a given community may lead us to price our homes with the objective of yielding a higher sales absorption pace, while facts and circumstances in another community may lead us to price our homes to minimize deterioration in our gross margins, although it may result in a slower sales absorption pace. In addition, the key assumptions included in our estimate of future undiscounted cash flows may be interrelated. For example, a decrease in estimated base sales price or an increase in homes sales incentives may result in a corresponding increase in sales absorption pace. Additionally, a decrease in the average sales price of homes to be sold and closed in future reporting periods for one community that has not been generating what management believes to be an adequate sales absorption pace may impact the estimated cash flow assumptions of a nearby community. Changes in our key assumptions, including estimated construction and development costs, absorption pace and selling strategies, could materially impact future cash flow and fair-value estimates. Due to the number of possible scenarios that would result from various changes in these factors, we do not believe it is possible to develop a sensitivity analysis with a level of precision that would be meaningful to an investor.

If the undiscounted cash flows are more than the carrying value of the community, then the carrying amount is recoverable, and no impairment adjustment is required. However, if the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount, then the community is deemed impaired and is written down to its fair value. We determine the estimated fair value of each community by determining the present value of its estimated future cash flows at a discount rate commensurate with the risk of the respective community, or in limited circumstances, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale), and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties. Our discount rates used for all impairments recorded from October 31, 2019 to October 31, 2021 ranged from 17.3% to 19.3%. The estimated future cash flow assumptions are virtually the same for both our recoverability and fair value assessments. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated cash flows or fair value, including discount rates, decrease or differ from current estimates in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairments related to current and future communities. The impairment of a community is allocated to each lot on a relative fair value basis.

From time to time, we write off deposits and approval, engineering and capitalized interest costs when we determine that it is no longer probable that we will exercise options to buy land in specific locations or when we redesign communities and/or abandon certain engineering costs. In deciding not to exercise a land option, we take into consideration changes in market conditions, the timing of required land takedowns, the willingness of land sellers to modify terms of the land option contract (including timing of land takedowns), and the availability and best use of our capital, among other factors. The write-off is recorded in the period it is deemed not probable that the optioned property will be acquired. In certain instances, we have been able to recover deposits and other pre-acquisition costs that were previously written off. These recoveries have not been significant in comparison to the total costs written off.

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Inventories held for sale are land parcels ready for sale in their current condition, where we have decided not to build homes but are instead actively marketing for sale. These land parcels represented $2.0 million of our total inventories at October 31, 2020, and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. There were no inventories held for sale at October 31, 2021. In determining fair value for land held for sale, management considers, among other things, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale) and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties.

Unconsolidated Homebuilding and Land Development Joint Ventures - Investments in unconsolidated homebuilding and land development joint ventures are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, we recognize our proportionate share of earnings and losses earned by the joint venture upon the delivery of lots or homes to third parties. Our ownership interests in the joint ventures vary but our voting interests are generally 50% or less. In determining whether or not we must consolidate joint ventures where we are the managing member of the joint venture, we assess whether the other partners have specific rights to overcome the presumption of control by us as the manager of the joint venture. In most cases, the presumption is overcome because the joint venture agreements require that both partners agree on establishing the significant operating and capital decisions of the partnership, including budgets, in the ordinary course of business. The evaluation of whether or not we control a venture can require significant judgment. In accordance with ASC 323-10, "Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures - Overall," we assess our investments in unconsolidated joint ventures for recoverability, and if it is determined that a loss in value of the investment below its carrying amount is other than temporary, we write down the investment to its fair value. We evaluate our equity investments for impairment based on the joint venture's projected cash flows. This process requires significant management judgment and estimates. During fiscal 2021 and 2020, we did not write down any of our unconsolidated joint venture investments.

Warranty Costs and Construction Defect Reserves - We accrue for warranty costs that are covered under our existing general liability and construction defect policy as part of our general liability insurance deductible. This accrual is expensed as selling, general, and administrative costs. For homes delivered in fiscal 2021 and 2020, our deductible under our general liability insurance was a $20 million aggregate for construction defect and warranty claims. For bodily injury claims, our deductible per occurrence in fiscal 2021 and 2020 was $0.25 million, up to a $5 million limit. Our aggregate retention for construction defect, warranty and bodily injury claims was $20 million for fiscal 2021 and 2020. We do not have a deductible on our worker's compensation insurance. Reserves for estimated losses for construction defects, warranty and bodily injury claims have been established using the assistance of a third-party actuary. We engage a third-party actuary that uses our historical warranty and construction defect data to assist our management in estimating our unpaid claims, claim adjustment expenses and incurred but not reported claims reserves for the risks that we are assuming under the general liability and construction defect programs. The estimates include provisions for inflation, claims handling and legal fees. These estimates are subject to a high degree of variability due to uncertainties such as trends in construction defect claims relative to our markets and the types of products we build, claim settlement patterns, insurance industry practices and legal interpretations, among others. Because of the high degree of judgment required in determining these estimated liability amounts, actual future costs could differ significantly from our currently estimated amounts. In addition, we establish a warranty accrual for lower cost-related issues to cover home repairs, community amenities and land development infrastructure that are not covered under our general liability and construction defect policy. We accrue an estimate for these warranty costs as part of cost of sales at the time each home is closed and title and possession have been transferred to the homebuyer. See Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the amount of warranty costs recognized in cost of goods sold and administrative expenses.

Deferred Income Taxes - Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences between amounts recorded for financial reporting and for income tax purposes. If the combination of future years' income (or loss) combined with the reversal of the timing differences results in a loss, such losses can be carried forward to future years to recover the deferred tax assets. The Company evaluates all significant available positive and negative evidence, including the existence of losses in recent years and its forecast of future taxable income, in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. The underlying assumptions the Company uses in forecasting future taxable income require significant judgment and take into account the Company's recent performance. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent on the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which temporary differences or carry-forwards are deductible or creditable. A valuation allowance is provided to offset deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

In evaluating the exposures associated with our various tax filing positions, we recognize tax liabilities in accordance with ASC 740-10, for more likely than not exposures. We re-evaluate the exposures associated with our tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors such as changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, new audit activity by taxing authorities, and effectively settled issues. Determining whether an uncertain tax position is effectively settled requires judgment. Such a change in recognition or measurement would result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. A number of years may elapse before a particular matter for which we have established a liability is audited and fully resolved or clarified. We adjust our liability for unrecognized tax benefits and income tax provision in the period in which an uncertain tax position is effectively settled, or the statute of limitations expires for the relevant taxing authority to examine the tax position or when more information becomes available. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a liability that is materially different from our current estimate. Any such changes will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Capital Resources and Liquidity

Our operations consist primarily of residential housing development and sales in the Northeast (New Jersey and Pennsylvania), the Mid-Atlantic (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington D.C. and West Virginia), the Midwest (Illinois and Ohio), the Southeast (Florida, Georgia and South Carolina), the Southwest (Arizona and Texas) and the West (California). In addition, we provide certain financial services to our homebuilding customers.

We have historically funded our homebuilding and financial services operations with cash flows from operating activities, borrowings under our credit facilities, the issuance of new debt and equity securities and other financing activities. Due to covenant restrictions in our debt instruments, we are currently limited primarily in the amount of secured debt we can incur that does not qualify as refinancing indebtedness, even if market conditions, including then-current market available interest rates (in recent years, we have not been able to access the traditional capital and bank lending markets at competitive interest rates due to our highly leveraged capital structure), would otherwise be favorable, which could also impact our ability to grow our business.

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Operating, Investing and Financing Activities - Overview

Our total liquidity at October 31, 2021 was $380.9 million, including $246.0 million in homebuilding cash and cash equivalents and $125.0 million of borrowing capacity under our senior secured revolving credit facility, after using $180.9 million for the full redemption of our 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 in the third quarter of fiscal 2021 and our 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024 in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021. This was above our target liquidity range of $170.0 to $245.0 million. The unprecedented public health and governmental efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic have created significant uncertainty as to general economic and housing market conditions for fiscal 2022 and beyond. We believe that these sources of cash together with available borrowings on our senior secured revolving credit facility will be sufficient through fiscal 2022 to finance our working capital requirements.

We spent $698.3 million on land and land development during fiscal 2021. After considering this land and land development and all other operating activities, including revenue received from deliveries, we had $210.2 million in cash provided from operations. During fiscal 2021, cash provided by investing activities was $9.0 million, primarily due to distributions from existing unconsolidated joint ventures, partially offset by an investment in a new unconsolidated joint venture. Cash used in financing activities was $217.3 million during fiscal 2021, which was primarily due to the full redemption of certain of our senior secured debt, as described above, along with net payments for nonrecourse mortgage financings, partially offset by net proceeds on our mortgage warehouse lines of credit. We intend to continue to use nonrecourse mortgage financings, model sale leaseback, joint ventures, and, subject to covenant restrictions in our debt instruments, land banking programs as our business needs dictate.

Our cash uses during the years ended October 31, 2021 and 2020 were for operating expenses, land purchases, land deposits, land development, construction spending, state income taxes, interest payments, financing transaction costs, debt repurchases, litigation matters and investments in unconsolidated joint ventures. During these periods, we provided for our cash requirements from available cash on hand, housing and land sales, financing transactions, model sale leasebacks, land banking transactions, unconsolidated joint ventures, financial service revenues and other revenues.

Our net income (loss) historically does not approximate cash flow from operating activities. The difference between net income (loss) and cash flow from operating activities is primarily caused by changes in inventory levels together with changes in receivables, prepaid and other assets, mortgage loans held for sale, interest and other accrued liabilities, deferred income taxes, accounts payable and other liabilities, noncash charges relating to depreciation and stock compensation awards and impairment losses for inventory. When we are expanding our operations, inventory levels, prepaids and other assets increase causing cash flow from operating activities to decrease. Certain liabilities also increase as operations expand and partially offset the negative effect on cash flow from operations caused by the increase in inventory levels, prepaids and other assets. Similarly, as our mortgage operations expand, net income from these operations increases, but for cash flow purposes net income is partially offset by the net change in mortgage assets and liabilities. The opposite is true as our investment in new land purchases and development of new communities decrease, causing us to generate positive cash flow from operations.

See "Inventory Activities" below for a detailed discussion of our inventory position.

Debt Transactions

Senior notes and credit facilities balances as of October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, were as follows:

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021 2020

Senior Secured Notes:

10.0% Senior Secured Notes due July 15, 2022

$ - $ 111,214

10.5% Senior Secured Notes due July 15, 2024

- 69,683

10.0% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due November 15, 2025

158,502 158,502

7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due February 15, 2026

350,000 350,000

10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due February 15, 2026

282,322 282,322

11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due February 15, 2026

162,269 162,269

Total Senior Secured Notes

$ 953,093 $ 1,133,990

Senior Notes:

8.0% Senior Notes due November 1, 2027 (1)

$ - $ -

13.5% Senior Notes due February 1, 2026

90,590 90,590

5.0% Senior Notes due February 1, 2040

90,120 90,120

Total Senior Notes

$ 180,710 $ 180,710

Senior Unsecured Term Loan Credit Facility due February 1, 2027

$ 39,551 $ 39,551

Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Term Loan Credit Facility due January 31, 2028

$ 81,498 $ 81,498

Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility (2)

$ - $ -

Subtotal notes payable

$ 1,254,852 $ 1,435,749

Net (discounts) premiums

$ 10,769 $ 17,521

Net debt issuance costs

$ (17,248 ) $ (22,160 )

Total notes payable, net of discounts, premiums and debt issuance costs

$ 1,248,373 $ 1,431,110

(1) $26.0 million of 8.0% Senior Notes due 2027 (the "8.0% 2027 Notes") are owned by a wholly-owned consolidated subsidiary of HEI. Therefore, in accordance with GAAP, such notes are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets of HEI. On November 1, 2019, the maturity of the 8.0% 2027 Notes was extended to November 1, 2027.

(2) At October 31, 2021, provides for up to $125.0 million in aggregate amount of senior secured first lien revolving loans. Availability thereunder will terminate on December 28, 2022.

Except for K. Hovnanian, the issuer of the notes and borrower under the Credit Facilities (as defined below), our home mortgage subsidiaries, certain of our title insurance subsidiaries, joint ventures and subsidiaries holding interests in our joint ventures, we and each of our subsidiaries are guarantors of the Credit Facilities, the senior secured notes and senior notes outstanding at October 31, 2021 (except for the 8.0% 2027 Notes which are not guaranteed by K. Hovnanian at Sunrise Trail III, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company) (collectively, the "Notes Guarantors").

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The credit agreements governing the Credit Facilities and the indentures governing the senior secured and senior notes (together, the "Debt Instruments") outstanding at October 31, 2021 do not contain any financial maintenance covenants, but do contain restrictive covenants that limit, among other things, the ability of HEI and certain of its subsidiaries, including K. Hovnanian, to incur additional indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness, certain permitted indebtedness and refinancing indebtedness), pay dividends and make distributions on common and preferred stock, repay certain indebtedness prior to its respective stated maturity, repurchase (including through exchanges) common and preferred stock, make other restricted payments (including investments), sell certain assets (including in certain land banking transactions), incur liens, consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of their assets and enter into certain transactions with affiliates. The Debt Instruments also contain customary events of default which would permit the lenders or holders thereof to exercise remedies with respect to the collateral (as applicable), declare the loans made under the Unsecured Term Loan Facility (defined below) (the "Unsecured Term Loans"), loans made under the Secured Term Loan Facility (defined below) (the "Secured Term Loans") and loans made under the Secured Credit Agreement (as defined below) (the "Secured Revolving Loans") or notes to be immediately due and payable if not cured within applicable grace periods, including the failure to make timely payments on the Unsecured Term Loans, Secured Term Loans, Secured Revolving Loans or notes or other material indebtedness, cross default to other material indebtedness, the failure to comply with agreements and covenants and specified events of bankruptcy and insolvency, with respect to the Unsecured Term Loans, Secured Term Loans and Secured Revolving Loans, material inaccuracy of representations and warranties and with respect to the Unsecured Term Loans, Secured Term Loans and Secured Revolving Loans, a change of control, and, with respect to the Secured Term Loans, Secured Revolving Loans and senior secured notes, the failure of the documents granting security for the obligations under the secured Debt Instruments to be in full force and effect, and the failure of the liens on any material portion of the collateral securing the obligations under the secured Debt Instruments to be valid and perfected. As of October 31, 2021, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants of the Debt Instruments.

If our consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio is less than 2.0 to 1.0, as defined in the applicable Debt Instrument, we are restricted from making certain payments and dividends (in such case our secured debt leverage ratio must also be less than 4.0 to 1.0), and from incurring indebtedness other than certain permitted indebtedness, refinancing indebtedness and nonrecourse indebtedness. As of October 31, 2021, as a result of our improved operating results, our fixed coverage ratio is above 2.0 to 1.0 and our secured debt leverage ratio is below 4.0 to 1.0, therefore we are no longer restricted from paying dividends. As such, on December 3, 2021, our Board of Directors authorized a dividend payment to preferred shareholders of record on January 1, 2022 and which will be paid on January 15, 2022.

Under the terms of our Debt Instruments, we have the right to make certain redemptions and prepayments and, depending on market conditions, our strategic priorities and covenant restrictions, may do so from time to time. We also continue to actively analyze and evaluate our capital structure and explore transactions to simplify our capital structure and to strengthen our balance sheet, including those that reduce leverage, interest rates and/or extend maturities, and will seek to do so with the right opportunity. We may also continue to make debt purchases and/or exchanges for debt or equity from time to time through tender offers, exchange offers, redemptions, open market purchases, private transactions, or otherwise, or seek to raise additional debt or equity capital, depending on market conditions and covenant restrictions.

Any liquidity-enhancing or other capital raising or refinancing transaction will depend on identifying counterparties, negotiation of documentation and applicable closing conditions and any required approvals. Due to covenant restrictions in our Debt Instruments, we are currently limited in the amount of debt we can incur that does not qualify as refinancing indebtedness, even if market conditions, including then-current market available interest rates (in recent years, we have not been able to access the traditional capital and bank lending markets at competitive interest rates due to our highly leveraged capital structure), would otherwise be favorable, which could also impact our ability to grow our business.

See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further discussion of K. Hovnanian's Credit Facilities, senior secured notes and senior notes, including information with respect to the collateral securing our Debt Instruments.

Mortgages and Notes Payable

We have nonrecourse mortgage loans for certain communities totaling $125.1 million and $135.1 million (net of debt issuance costs) at October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, respectively, which are secured by the related real property, including any improvements, with an aggregate book value of $448.5 million and $368.1 million, respectively. The weighted-average interest rate on these obligations was 4.4% and 6.4% at October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, respectively, and the mortgage loan payments on each community primarily correspond to home deliveries.

Our wholly owned mortgage banking subsidiary, K. Hovnanian American Mortgage, LLC ("K. Hovnanian Mortgage"), originates mortgage loans primarily from the sale of our homes. Such mortgage loans and related servicing rights are sold in the secondary mortgage market within a short period of time. In certain instances, we retain the servicing rights for a small amount of loans. K. Hovnanian Mortgage finances the origination of mortgage loans through various master repurchase agreements, which are recorded in "Financial services" liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The loans are secured by the mortgages held for sale and are repaid when we sell the underlying mortgage loans to permanent investors. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, we had an aggregate of $134.9 million and $87.2 million, respectively, outstanding under several of K. Hovnanian Mortgage's short-term borrowing facilities.

See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of these agreements and facilities.

Equity

On July 3, 2001, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program to purchase up to 0.2 million shares of Class A Common Stock. We did not repurchase any shares under this program during fiscal 2021 or 2020. As of October 31, 2021, the maximum number of shares of Class A Common Stock that may yet be purchased under this program is 22 thousand. (See Part II, Item 5 for information on equity purchases).

On July 12, 2005, we issued 5,600 shares of 7.625% Series A Preferred Stock, with a liquidation preference of $25,000 per share. Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are not cumulative and are payable at an annual rate of 7.625%. The Series A Preferred Stock is not convertible into the Company's common stock and is redeemable in whole or in part at our option at the liquidation preference of the shares. The Series A Preferred Stock is traded as depositary shares, with each depositary share representing 1/1000th of a share of Series A Preferred Stock. The depositary shares are listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol "HOVNP." In fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, we did not make any dividend payments on the Series A Preferred Stock as a result of covenant restrictions in our debt instruments. We have never paid a cash dividend to common stockholders. Due to our improved operating results, as of October 31, 2021 we are no longer restricted from making dividend payments under our debt instruments. On December 3, 2021, our Board of Directors authorized a dividend payment of $2.7 million to preferred shareholders of record on January 1, 2022 and which will be paid on January 15, 2022.

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On October 31, 2019, in connection with the issuance of the 7.75% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026, we issued and sold an aggregate of 178,427 shares of Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share (and associated Preferred Stock Purchase Rights), to the purchasers of such Notes for an aggregate purchase price of $1,784.27. The issuance was exempt from registration under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933.

Unconsolidated Joint Ventures

As discussed in Note 20 - Investments in Unconsolidated Joint Ventures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, we have investments in unconsolidated joint ventures in various markets where our homebuilding operations are located. Our unconsolidated joint ventures had total combined assets of $611.8 million at October 31, 2021 and $540.2 million at October 31, 2020. Our investments in unconsolidated joint ventures totaled $60.9 million at October 31, 2021 and $103.2 million at October 31, 2020. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, our unconsolidated joint ventures had outstanding debt totaling $74.0 and $117.2 million, respectively, under separate construction loan agreements with different third-party lenders and affiliates of certain investment partners to finance their respective land development activities, with the outstanding debt secured by the corresponding underlying property and related project assets and non-recourse to us. While we and our unconsolidated joint venture partners provide certain guarantees and indemnities to the lender, we do not have a guaranty or any other obligation to repay our outstanding debt or to support the value of the collateral underlying the outstanding debt. We do not believe that our existing exposure under our guaranty and indemnity obligations related to the outstanding debt is material to our consolidated financial statements. See also Note 19 - Variable Interest Entities in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. We determined that none of our joint ventures at October 31, 2021 and 2020 were a variable interest entity. All our unconsolidated joint ventures were accounted for under the equity method because we did not have a controlling financial interest.

Inventory Activities

Total inventory, excluding consolidated inventory not owned, increased $142.0 million during the year ended October 31, 2021, from October 31, 2020. Total inventory, excluding consolidated inventory not owned, increased in the Northeast by $35.9 million, in the Midwest by $2.9 million, in the Southeast by $41.9 million and in the Southwest by $91.0 million. These increases were partially offset by decreases in the Mid-Atlantic of $5.0 million and in the West of $24.7 million. These inventory fluctuations were primarily attributable to new land purchases and land development, partially offset by home deliveries and land sales during the period. During the year ended October 31, 2021, we had aggregate impairments in the amount of $2.0 million. We wrote-off costs in the aggregate amount of $1.6 million during the year ended October 31, 2021 related to land options that expired or that we terminated, as the communities' forecasted profitability was not projected to produce adequate returns on investment commensurate with the risk. In the last few years, we have been able to acquire new land parcels at prices that we believe will generate reasonable returns under current homebuilding market conditions. This trend may not continue in either the near or the long term. Substantially all homes under construction or completed and included in inventory at October 31, 2021 are expected to be closed during the next six to nine months.

Consolidated inventory not owned decreased $83.5 million. Consolidated inventory not owned consists of options related to land banking and model financing transactions that were added to our Consolidated Balance Sheets in accordance with US GAAP. The decrease from October 31, 2020 to October 31, 2021 was primarily due to a decrease in land banking transactions along with a decrease in the sale and leaseback of certain model homes during the period. We have land banking arrangements, whereby we sell land parcels to the land bankers and they provide us an option to purchase back finished lots on a predetermined schedule. Because of our options to repurchase these parcels, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-70, these transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. For purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheet, at October 31, 2021, inventory of $66.2 million was recorded to "Consolidated inventory not owned," with a corresponding amount of $31.3 million (net of debt issuance costs) recorded to "Liabilities from inventory not owned" for the amount of net cash received from the transactions. In addition, we sell and lease back certain of our model homes with the right to participate in the potential profit when each home is sold to a third party at the end of the respective lease. As a result of our continued involvement, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-68, these sale and leaseback transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. Therefore, for purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheet, at October 31, 2021, inventory of $32.5 million was recorded to "Consolidated inventory not owned," with a corresponding amount of $31.5 million (net of debt issuance costs) recorded to "Liabilities from inventory not owned" for the amount of net cash received from the transactions.

When possible, we option property for development prior to acquisition. By optioning property, we are only subject to the loss of the cost of the option and predevelopment costs if we choose not to exercise the option. As a result, our commitment for major land acquisitions is reduced. The costs associated with optioned properties are included in "Land and land options held for future development or sale" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Also included in "Land and land options held for future development or sale" are amounts associated with inventory in mothballed communities. We mothball (or stop development on) certain communities when we determine the current performance does not justify further investment at the time. That is, we believe we will generate higher returns if we decide against spending money to improve land today and save the raw land until such time as the markets improve or we determine to sell the property. As of October 31, 2021, we had mothballed land in 6 communities. The book value associated with these communities at October 31, 2021 was $4.3 million, which was net of impairment charges recorded in prior periods of $57.5 million. We continually review communities to determine if mothballing is appropriate. During fiscal 2021, we did not mothball any additional communities, but we sold four previously mothballed communities and we re-activated two previously mothballed communities and portions of two previously mothballed communities.

Inventories held for sale, which are land parcels where we have decided not to build homes, and are actively marketing the land for sale, represented $2.0 million of our total inventories held for sale at October 31, 2020 and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. There were no inventories held for sale at October 31, 2021. In determining fair value for land held for sale, management considers, among other things, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale) and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties.

In the ordinary course of business, we enter into land and lot option purchase contracts in order to procure land or lots for the construction of homes. Lot option contracts enable us to control significant lot positions with a minimal capital investment and substantially reduce the risks associated with land ownership and development. At October 31, 2021, we had total cash deposits of $100.1 million to purchase land and lots with a total purchase price of $1.5 billion. Our financial exposure is generally limited to forfeiture of the nonrefundable deposits, letters of credit and other nonrefundable amounts incurred. We have no material third-party guarantees.

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The following tables summarize home sites included in our total residential real estate.

Remaining

Total

Contracted

Home

Home

Not

Sites

Sites

Delivered

Available

October 31, 2021:

Northeast

3,346 172 3,174

Mid-Atlantic

8,243 508 7,735

Midwest

2,383 605 1,778

Southeast

3,779 421 3,358

Southwest

9,408 1,076 8,332

West

4,084 465 3,619

Consolidated total

31,243 3,247 27,996

Unconsolidated joint ventures

4,030 2,288 1,742

Owned

10,451 2,624 7,827

Optioned

20,423 254 20,169

Construction to permanent financing lots

369 369 -

Consolidated total

31,243 3,247 27,996

Lots controlled by unconsolidated joint ventures

4,030 2,288 1,742

October 31, 2020:

Northeast

3,043 130 2,913

Mid-Atlantic

5,928 557 5,371

Midwest

2,166 596 1,570

Southeast

3,071 298 2,773

Southwest

7,641 1,066 6,575

West

4,495 755 3,740

Consolidated total

26,344 3,402 22,942

Unconsolidated joint ventures

4,724 1,418 3,306

Owned

9,745 2,517 7,228

Optioned

16,304 590 15,714

Construction to permanent financing lots

295 295 -

Consolidated total

26,344 3,402 22,942

Lots controlled by unconsolidated joint ventures

4,724 1,418 3,306

The following table summarizes our started or completed unsold homes and models, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, in active and substantially completed communities. The decrease in the total homes from October 31, 2020 to October 31, 2021 was primarily due to the increase in net contracts absorption pace during fiscal 2021.

October 31, 2021

October 31, 2020

Unsold

Unsold

Homes

Models

Total

Homes

Models

Total

Northeast

8 10 18 1 5 6

Mid-Atlantic

26 22 48 31 10 41

Midwest

8 9 17 11 8 19

Southeast

24 22 46 42 17 59

Southwest

114 29 143 174 16 190

West

7 12 19 14 19 33

Total

187 104 291 273 75 348

Started or completed unsold homes and models per active selling communities(1)

1.5 0.8 2.3 2.4 0.6 3.0

(1)

Active selling communities (which are communities that are open for sale with ten or more home sites available) were 124 and 116 at October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. This ratio does not include substantially completed communities, which are communities with less than ten home sites available.

Other Balance Sheet Activities

Investments in and advances to unconsolidated joint ventures decreased $42.3 million during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021 compared to October 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily due to partnership distributions during the period, along with our purchase of the remaining equity interest in one of our unconsolidated joint ventures in the third quarter of fiscal 2021. As a result of this transaction, we took control of four communities, including three active communities. The previously unconsolidated joint venture was subsequently dissolved. Additionally, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021 we acquired the remaining assets and liabilities from one of our unconsolidated joint ventures which was disolved during the period, resulting in the write-off of our investment. These decreases were partially offset by an increase due to our entry into two new unconsolidated joint ventures during the first half of fiscal 2021. As of October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, we had investments in nine and ten unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures, respectively, and one unconsolidated land development joint venture for both periods. We have no guarantees associated with our unconsolidated joint ventures, other than guarantees limited only to performance and completion of development, environmental indemnification and standard warranty and representation against fraud, misrepresentation and similar actions, including a voluntary bankruptcy.

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Receivables, deposits and notes, net increased $6.2 million from October 31, 2020 to $39.9 million at October 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to the timing of home closings, along with increased escrow and municipal deposits during the period, partially offset by a receivable for a settlement which was received in the third quarter of fiscal 2021.

Prepaid expenses and other assets were as follows as of:

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

Dollar Change

Prepaid insurance

$ 2,577 $ 2,687 $ (110 )

Prepaid project costs

25,880 28,549 (2,669 )

Other prepaids

9,140 7,022 2,118

Other assets

745 431 314

Lease right of use asset

17,844 20,016 (2,172 )

Total

$ 56,186 $ 58,705 $ (2,519 )

Prepaid insurance decreased slightly due to the timing of premium payments. These costs are amortized over the life of the associated insurance policy, which can be one to three years. Prepaid project costs consist of community specific expenditures that are used over the life of the community. Such prepaids are expensed as homes are delivered. The decrease in prepaid project costs was primarily related to the close-out of communities during the fiscal year, along with the write-off of prepaid costs related to a land sale in the Midwest, partially offset by prepaid project costs for new communities during the fiscal year. Other prepaids increased primarily due to increased prepaid commissions and property taxes during the period. Lease right of use asset represents the net present value of our operating leases which, in accordance with ASC 842, are required to be recorded as an asset on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

Financial services assets consist primarily of residential mortgages receivable held for sale of which $149.2 million and $101.8 million at October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, were being temporarily warehoused and are awaiting sale in the secondary mortgage market. The increase in mortgage loans held for sale from October 31, 2020 was primarily related to an increase in the volume of loans originated during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021 compared to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, along with an increase in the average loan value.

Deferred tax assets, net, was $425.7 million at October 31, 2021, and zero at October 31, 2020, due to the full reversal of our federal valuation allowance and the reversal of a portion of our state valuation allowance in the second quarter of fiscal 2021.

Nonrecourse mortgages secured by inventory decreased to $125.1 million at October 31, 2021, from $135.1 million at October 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily due to the payment of existing mortgages, partially offset by additional loan borrowings on existing mortgages along with new mortgages for communities in most of our segments obtained during fiscal 2021.

Accounts payable and other liabilities are as follows as of:

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

Dollar Change

Accounts payable

$ 163,898 $ 148,541 $ 15,357

Reserves

98,831 89,985 8,846

Lease liability

18,952 21,049 (2,097 )

Accrued expenses

17,588 10,680 6,908

Accrued compensation

102,862 68,641 34,221

Other liabilities

24,250 20,378 3,872

Total

$ 426,381 $ 359,274 $ 67,107

The increase in accounts payable was primarily due to an increase in construction spending, corresponding to the increase in deliveries in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021 as compared to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020. Reserves increased due to new accruals primarily for warranty and construction defect claims, partially offset by claim payments during the period. Lease liability represents the net present value of our minimum lease obligations, which as discussed above, are required to be recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets in accordance with ASC 842. Accrued expenses increased primarily due to an accrual for a sales reward program, along with an increase in accrued property taxes. The increase in accrued compensation was primarily due to expenses associated with our 2019 LTIP plan based on the increase in our stock price during fiscal 2021, along with increased company profitability in fiscal 2021 as compared to fiscal 2020, which resulted in higher bonuses. Other liabilities increased primarily due to deferred payroll tax withholdings during the period.

Customers' deposits increased $20.0 million from October 31, 2020 to $68.3 million at October 31, 2021. The increase was primarily related to the increase in the dollar value of our backlog, associated with price increases in fiscal 2021, along with an increase due to the consolidation of one of our previously unconsolidated joint ventures during fiscal 2021, which has open for sale communities.

Liabilities from inventory not owned decreased $68.4 million to $62.8 million at October 31, 2021. The decrease was due to a decrease in land banking transactions during the period, along with a decrease in the sale and leaseback of certain model homes, both of which are accounted for as financing transactions as described above.

Accrued interest decreased $7.4 million to $28.2 million at October 31, 2021. The decrease was primarily due to the redemption of our 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 and 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024 during the period, partially offset by new accruals during the period.

Financial Services liabilities increased $63.2 million from $119.0 million at October 31, 2020, to $182.2 million at October 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to the increase in amounts outstanding under our mortgage warehouse lines of credit, and directly correlated to the increase in the volume of mortgage loans held for sale during the year.

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Results of Operations

Total Revenues

Compared to the prior period, revenues increased (decreased) as follows:

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(Dollars in thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Homebuilding:

Sale of homes

$ 421,681 $ 302,347 $ 43,454

Land sales

8,459 7,694 (15,066 )

Other revenues

(714 ) (1,066 ) (3,502 )

Financial services

9,530 18,010 797

Total change

$ 438,956 $ 326,985 $ 25,683

Total revenues percent change

18.7 % 16.2 % 1.3 %

Homebuilding

Sale of homes revenues increased $421.7 million, or 18.7%, for the year ended October 31, 2021, increased $302.3 million, or 15.5%, for the year ended October 31, 2020, and increased $43.5 million, or 2.3%, for the year ended October 31, 2019 as compared to the same period of the prior year. The increased revenues in fiscal 2021 were primarily due to the number of home deliveries increasing 9.1%, and the average price per home increasing to $430,966 in fiscal 2021 from $396,065 in fiscal 2020. The increase in deliveries in fiscal 2021 was primarily due to increased demand for new home construction during fiscal 2021. The increased revenues in fiscal 2020 were primarily due to the number of home deliveries increasing 15.0%, and the average price per home increasing to $396,065 in fiscal 2020 from $394,194 in fiscal 2019. The increase in deliveries in fiscal 2020 was primarily due to the increased demand for new home construction during the latter half of fiscal 2020. The increased revenues in fiscal 2019 were primarily due to the number of home deliveries increasing 2.0% and the average price per home increasing to $394,194 in fiscal 2019 from $393,280 in fiscal 2018. The increase in deliveries in fiscal 2019 was primarily due to the result of an increase in community count in fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018 of 14.6%. The increase in average price in fiscal 2021 and 2020 was primarily due to price increases in most of our communities as a result of a sustained surge in demand for new homes, which started in May 2020. The increase in average price for fiscal 2019 was primarily the result of geographic and community mix of our deliveries. For further detail on changes in segment revenues see "Homebuilding Operations by Segment" below. Land sales are ancillary to our homebuilding operations and are expected to continue in the future but may significantly fluctuate up or down. For further detail on land sales and other revenue, see the section titled "Land Sales and Other Revenues" below.

Information on homes delivered by segment is set forth below:

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(Housing Revenue in thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Northeast:

Housing revenues

$ 140,212 $ 175,627 $ 116,889

Homes delivered

201 348 192

Average price

$ 697,572 $ 504,675 $ 608,797

Mid-Atlantic:

Housing revenues

$ 465,432 $ 402,647 $ 356,674

Homes delivered

849 755 652

Average price

$ 548,212 $ 533,307 $ 547,046

Midwest:

Housing revenues

$ 248,531 $ 225,334 $ 203,734

Homes delivered

773 727 680

Average price

$ 321,515 $ 309,950 $ 299,609

Southeast:

Housing revenues

$ 276,207 $ 232,333 $ 219,860

Homes delivered

602 548 545

Average price

$ 458,816 $ 423,965 $ 403,413

Southwest:

Housing revenues

$ 902,248 $ 743,301 $ 627,201

Homes delivered

2,531 2,233 1,866

Average price

$ 356,479 $ 332,871 $ 336,121

West:

Housing revenues

$ 641,080 $ 472,786 $ 425,324

Homes delivered

1,248 1,075 1,011

Average price

$ 513,686 $ 439,801 $ 420,696

Consolidated total:

Housing revenues

$ 2,673,710 $ 2,252,028 $ 1,949,682

Homes delivered

6,204 5,686 4,946

Average price

$ 430,966 $ 396,065 $ 394,194

Unconsolidated joint ventures:(1)

Housing revenues

$ 345,793 $ 432,602 $ 485,324

Homes delivered

589 728 774

Average price

$ 587,085 $ 594,234 $ 627,034

(1) Represents housing revenue and home deliveries for our unconsolidated homebuilding joint ventures for the period. We provide this data as a supplement to our consolidated results as an indicator of the volume managed in our unconsolidated joint ventures. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of our joint ventures.

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The increase in housing revenues during the year ended October 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended October 31, 2020, was primarily attributed to our increased deliveries, from the sustained strong homebuilding market and high demand for new home construction we saw begin in fiscal 2020, and by the increase in average sales price. Housing revenues in fiscal 2021 increased 18.7% on a combined basis across all of our homebuilding segments, and average sales price increased by 8.8% in all such segments combined, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures. In our homebuilding segments, homes delivered increased in fiscal 2021 as compared to fiscal 2020 by 12.5%, 6.3%, 9.9%, 13.3% and 16.1% in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West, respectively, partially offset by a 42.2% decrease in the Northeast. Overall in fiscal 2021 as compared to fiscal 2020, homes delivered increased 9.1% across all our segments, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures.

The increase in housing revenues during the year ended October 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended October 31, 2019, was primarily attributed to our increased deliveries, from the strong homebuilding market and high demand for new home construction, and by the increase in average sales price. Housing revenues in fiscal 2020 increased 15.5% on a combined basis across all of our homebuilding segments, and average sales price increased by 0.5% in all such segments combined, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures. In our homebuilding segments, homes delivered increased in fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019 by 81.3%, 15.8%, 6.9%, 0.6%, 19.7% and 6.3% in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West, respectively. Overall in fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, homes delivered increased 15.0% across all of our segments, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures.

Quarterly housing revenues and net sales contracts by segment, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are set forth below (net contracts are defined as new contracts executed during the period for the purchase of homes, less cancellations of contracts in the same period):

Quarter Ended

October 31,

July 31,

April 30,

January 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2021

2021

2021

Housing revenues:

Northeast

$ 45,055 $ 35,255 $ 28,686 $ 31,216

Mid-Atlantic

154,202 106,195 112,124 92,911

Midwest

67,340 60,588 64,010 56,593

Southeast

87,718 61,978 80,863 45,648

Southwest

282,128 212,773 217,165 190,182

West

143,108 186,490 176,667 134,815

Consolidated total

$ 779,551 $ 663,279 $ 679,515 $ 551,365

Sales contracts (net of cancellations):

Northeast

$ 60,812 $ 52,066 $ 49,948 $ 33,670

Mid-Atlantic

127,625 117,341 152,237 144,481

Midwest

56,684 56,848 80,541 79,386

Southeast

97,284 58,522 66,485 98,194

Southwest

217,920 196,481 319,618 267,825

West

100,067 127,872 151,571 174,114

Consolidated total

$ 660,392 $ 609,130 $ 820,400 $ 797,670

Quarter Ended

October 31,

July 31,

April 30,

January 31,

(In thousands)

2020

2020

2020

2020

Housing revenues:

Northeast

$ 42,218 $ 41,354 $ 46,791 $ 45,264

Mid-Atlantic

114,221 111,160 89,677 87,589

Midwest

59,498 62,901 56,543 46,392

Southeast

73,741 65,595 56,317 36,680

Southwest

194,505 214,608 170,485 163,703

West

159,332 110,315 103,534 99,605

Consolidated total

$ 643,515 $ 605,933 $ 523,347 $ 479,233

Sales contracts (net of cancellations):

Northeast

$ 63,326 $ 51,586 $ 23,266 $ 33,003

Mid-Atlantic

135,364 152,511 128,652 93,702

Midwest

79,999 79,394 54,501 58,276

Southeast

74,765 79,846 48,508 67,158

Southwest

245,813 260,891 187,493 178,433

West

229,656 258,067 139,418 90,832

Consolidated total

$ 828,923 $ 882,295 $ 581,838 $ 521,404
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Quarter Ended

October 31,

July 31,

April 30,

January 31,

(In thousands)

2019

2019

2019

2019

Housing revenues:

Northeast

$ 70,650 $ 20,694 $ 13,040 $ 12,505

Mid-Atlantic

135,866 86,811 80,818 53,179

Midwest

68,714 47,261 42,870 44,889

Southeast

76,414 50,217 49,346 43,883

Southwest

213,089 152,615 143,634 117,863

West

127,413 110,251 97,844 89,816

Consolidated total

$ 692,146 $ 467,849 $ 427,552 $ 362,135

Sales contracts (net of cancellations):

Northeast

$ 37,860 $ 37,560 $ 62,580 $ 34,950

Mid-Atlantic

86,296 99,807 118,245 81,514

Midwest

54,682 58,794 68,744 37,046

Southeast

69,765 58,648 64,772 40,460

Southwest

166,723 202,553 192,630 115,338

West

102,460 131,483 120,616 57,018

Consolidated total

$ 517,786 $ 588,845 $ 627,587 $ 366,326

Contracts per average active selling community in fiscal 2021 were 55.3 compared to 54.3 in fiscal 2020. Our reported level of sales contracts (net of cancellations) was positively impacted by an increase in the pace of sales in all of the Company's segments during fiscal 2021. Cancellation rates represent the number of cancelled contracts in the quarter divided by the number of gross sales contracts executed in the quarter. For comparison, the following are historical cancellation rates, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures:

Quarter

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

First

17 % 19 % 24 % 18 % 19 %

Second

16 % 23 % 19 % 17 % 18 %

Third

16 % 18 % 19 % 19 % 19 %

Fourth

15 % 18 % 21 % 23 % 22 %

Another common and meaningful way to analyze our cancellation trends is to compare the number of contract cancellations as a percentage of the beginning backlog. The following table provides this historical comparison, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures.

Quarter

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

First

11 % 14 % 16 % 12 % 12 %

Second

9 % 20 % 20 % 15 % 16 %

Third

6 % 21 % 16 % 14 % 13 %

Fourth

6 % 14 % 14 % 13 % 12 %

Most cancellations occur within the legal rescission period, which varies by state but is generally less than two weeks after the signing of the contract. Cancellations also occur as a result of a buyer's failure to qualify for a mortgage, which generally occurs during the first few weeks after signing. As shown in the tables above, contract cancellations over the past several years have been within what we believe to be a normal range, with fiscal 2021 cancellation rates, in particular, being below historical norms as a result of the strong market conditions. Fiscal 2020 had varying cancellation rates due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects. Market conditions and any possible further impacts from COVID-19 remain uncertain, and it is difficult to predict what cancellation rates will be in the future.

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An important indicator of our future results is recently signed contracts and our home contract backlog for future deliveries. Our consolidated contract backlog, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, by segment is set forth below:

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(Dollars in thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Northeast:

Total contract backlog

$ 138,396 $ 82,111 $ 86,557

Number of homes

172 130 152

Mid-Atlantic: (1)(2)

Total contract backlog

$ 342,189 $ 291,115 $ 193,387

Number of homes

508 557 343

Midwest:

Total contract backlog

$ 194,446 $ 169,517 $ 122,681

Number of homes

605 596 450

Southeast:

Total contract backlog

$ 221,425 $ 146,971 $ 121,921

Number of homes

421 298 282

Southwest:

Total contract backlog

$ 459,820 $ 360,225 $ 230,898

Number of homes

1,076 1,066 663

West:

Total contract backlog

$ 282,430 $ 369,887 $ 124,700

Number of homes

465 755 301

Totals: (1)(2)

Total consolidated contract backlog

$ 1,638,706 $ 1,419,826 $ 880,144

Number of homes

3,247 3,402 2,191

(1)

Contract backlog as of October 31, 2019 excludes 29 homes that were sold to one of our joint ventures at the time of the joint venture formation.

(2) Reflects the reclassification of 14 homes and $7.4 million of contract backlog as of October 31, 2021 from unconsolidated joint ventures to the consolidated Mid-Atlantic segment. This is related to our acquisition of the remaining assets and liabilities from one of our unconsolidated joint ventures which was dissolved during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021.

Contract backlog dollars increased 15.4% as of October 31, 2021 compared to October 31, 2020, and the number of homes in backlog decreased 4.6% for the same period. The increase in backlog dollars was driven by a 20.9% increase in the average price of the homes in backlog for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. In the month of November 2021, excluding unconsolidated joint ventures, we signed an additional 467 net contracts amounting to $239.7 million in contract value.

Total cost of sales on our Consolidated Statements of Operations includes expenses for consolidated housing and land and lot sales, including inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs (defined as "land charges" in the tables below). A breakout of such expenses for housing sales and homebuilding gross margin is set forth below.

Homebuilding gross margin before cost of sales interest expense and land charges is a non-GAAP financial measure. This measure should not be considered as an alternative to homebuilding gross margin determined in accordance with GAAP as an indicator of operating performance.

Management believes this non-GAAP measure enables investors to better understand our operating performance. This measure is also useful internally, helping management evaluate our operating results on a consolidated basis and relative to other companies in our industry. In particular, the magnitude and volatility of land charges for the Company, and for other homebuilders, have been significant and, as such, have made financial analysis of our industry more difficult. Homebuilding metrics excluding land charges, as well as interest amortized to cost of sales, and other similar presentations prepared by analysts and other companies are frequently used to assist investors in understanding and comparing the operating characteristics of homebuilding activities by eliminating many of the differences in companies' respective level of impairments and levels of debt.

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(Dollars in thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Sale of homes

$ 2,673,710 $ 2,252,029 $ 1,949,682

Cost of sales, excluding interest expense and land charges

2,091,016 1,837,332 1,596,237

Homebuilding gross margin, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges

582,694 414,697 353,445

Cost of sales interest expense, excluding land sales interest expense

82,181 74,174 70,520

Homebuilding gross margin, after cost of sales interest expense, before land charges

500,513 340,523 282,925

Land charges

3,630 8,813 6,288

Homebuilding gross margin

$ 496,883 $ 331,710 $ 276,637

Homebuilding gross margin percentage

18.6 % 14.7 % 14.2 %

Homebuilding gross margin percentage, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges

21.8 % 18.4 % 18.1 %

Homebuilding gross margin percentage, after cost of sales interest expense, before land charges

18.7 % 15.1 % 14.5 %
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Cost of sales expenses as a percentage of consolidated home sales revenues are presented below:

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

2021

2020

2019

Sale of homes

100 % 100 % 100 %

Cost of sales, excluding interest expense and land charges:

Housing, land and development costs

69.7 % 72.1 % 72.1 %

Commissions

3.7 % 3.7 % 3.7 %

Financing concessions

1.1 % 1.4 % 1.4 %

Overheads

3.7 % 4.4 % 4.7 %

Total cost of sales, before interest expense and land charges

78.2 % 81.6 % 81.9 %

Cost of sales interest

3.1 % 3.3 % 3.6 %

Land charges

0.1 % 0.4 % 0.3 %

Homebuilding gross margin percentage

18.6 % 14.7 % 14.2 %

Homebuilding gross margin percentage, before cost of sales interest expense and land charges

21.8 % 18.4 % 18.1 %

Homebuilding gross margin percentage, after cost of sales interest expense and before land charges

18.7 % 15.1 % 14.5 %

We sell a variety of home types in various communities, each yielding a different gross margin. As a result, depending on the mix of communities delivering homes, consolidated gross margin may fluctuate up or down. Total homebuilding gross margin percentage increased to 18.6% for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to 14.7% for the prior year. This increase was primarily due to increases in home prices across virtually all our operating segments, along with the mix of communities delivering compared to the prior year. Total homebuilding gross margin percentage increased to 14.7% for the year ended October 31, 2020 compared to 14.2% for the prior year. This increase was primarily due to the mix of communities delivering compared to the prior year, along with increases in home prices during the latter half of fiscal 2020 in virtually all of our markets.

Reflected as inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs in cost of sales ("land charges"), we have written off or written down certain inventories totaling $3.6 million, $8.8 million and $6.3 million during the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, to their estimated fair value. See Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for an additional discussion. During the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, we wrote off residential land options and approval and engineering costs totaling $1.6 million, $6.8 million and $3.6 million, respectively, which are included in the total land charges mentioned above. Option, approval and engineering costs are written off when a community's pro forma profitability is not projected to produce adequate returns on the investment commensurate with the risk and when we believe it is probable we will cancel the option, or when a community is redesigned, engineering costs related to the initial design are written off. Such write-offs were located in all segments in fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019. The inventory impairments amounted to $2.0 million, $2.0 million and $2.7 million for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. It is difficult to predict impairment levels, and should it become necessary or desirable to have additional land sales, lower prices, or should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated cash flows or fair value decrease or differ from current estimates in the future, we may need to recognize additional impairments.

Below is a breakdown of our lot option walk-aways and impairments by segment for fiscal 2021. In fiscal 2021, we walked away from 13.5% of all the lots we controlled under option contracts. The remaining 86.5% of our option lots are in communities that we believe remain economically feasible.

The following table represents lot option walk-aways by segment for the year ended October 31, 2021:

Walk-

Away

Dollar

Number of

% of

Lots as a

Amount

Walk-

Walk-

Total

% of Total

of Walk

Away

Away

Option

Option

(Dollars in millions)

Away

Lots

Lots

Lots(1)

Lots

Northeast

$ - - - 2,818 -

Mid-Atlantic

0.3 1,008 31.5 % 7,488 13.5 %

Midwest

- - - 1,197 -

Southeast

0.2 667 20.8 % 2,890 23.1 %

Southwest

0.2 1,343 42.0 % 7,890 17.0 %

West

0.9 183 5.7 % 1,341 13.6 %

Total

$ 1.6 3,201 100.0 % 23,624 13.5 %

(1)

Includes lots optioned at October 31, 2021 and lots optioned that the Company walked away from in the year ended October 31, 2021.

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The following table represents impairments by segment for the year ended October 31, 2021:

Dollar

Pre-

% of Pre-

Amount of

% of

Impairment

Impairment

(In millions)

Impairment

Impairments

Value(1)

Value

Northeast

$ - - % $ - - %

Mid-Atlantic

- - % - - %

Midwest

- - % - - %

Southeast

1.2 60.0 % 9.2 13.0 %

Southwest

- - % - - %

West

0.8 40.0 % 2.3 34.8 %

Total

$ 2.0 100.0 % $ 11.5 17.4 %

(1)

Represents carrying value, net of prior period impairments, if any, at the time of recording the applicable period's impairments.

Land Sales and Other Revenues

Land sales and other revenues consist primarily of land and lot sales. A breakout of land and lot sales is set forth below:

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Land and lot sales

$ 25,364 $ 16,905 $ 9,211

Cost of sales, excluding interest

19,180 11,154 8,540

Land and lot sales gross margin, excluding interest

6,184 5,751 671

Land and lot sales interest expense

1,919 156 205

Land and lot sales gross margin, including interest

$ 4,265 $ 5,595 $ 466

Land sales are ancillary to our residential homebuilding operations and are expected to continue in the future but may significantly fluctuate up or down. Although we budget land sales, they are often dependent upon receiving approvals and entitlements, the timing of which can be uncertain. As a result, projecting the amount and timing of land sales is difficult. There were 11 land sales during the year ended October 31, 2021, compared to seven in the prior year, resulting in an $8.5 million increase in land sales revenue. There were seven land sales in the year ended October 31, 2020, compared to six in the year ended October 31, 2019, resulting in a $7.7 million increase in land sales revenue.

Land sales and other revenues increased $7.7 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to the prior year and increased $6.6 million for the year ended October 31, 2020 compared to the prior year. Other revenues include income from contract cancellations where the deposit has been forfeited due to contract terminations, interest income, cash discounts and miscellaneous one-time receipts. The increase from fiscal 2020 to fiscal 2021 and from fiscal 2019 to fiscal 2020 was mainly due to the fluctuations in land sales revenue noted above.

Homebuilding Selling, General and Administrative

Homebuilding selling, general and administrative ("SGA") expenses increased $8.6 million to $169.9 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended October 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributed to a change in volume of our unconsolidated joint venture deliveries, and an increase in compensation expense. The increase in compensation expense was mostly attributed to our long-term incentive programs now forecasted to achieve above target metrics as a result of improved operating results and our higher stock price. SGA expenses decreased $5.5 million to $161.3 million for the year ended October 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended October 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily attributed to lower selling overhead and advertising costs, as a result of the reduction of our community count and a reduced need for advertising as home sales improved.

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Homebuilding Operations by Segment

Financial information relating to the Company's operations was as follows:

Segment Analysis (Dollars in thousands, except average sales price)

Years Ended October 31,

Variance

Variance

2021

2020

Compared

Compared

2021

to 2020 2020 to 2019 2019

Northeast

Homebuilding revenue

$ 142,445 $ (49,624 ) $ 192,069 $ 67,697 $ 124,372

Income before income taxes

$ 22,922 $ (7,449 ) $ 30,371 $ 9,417 $ 20,954

Homes delivered

201 (147 ) 348 156 192

Average sales price

$ 697,572 $ 192,897 $ 504,675 $ (104,122 ) $ 608,797

Mid-Atlantic

Homebuilding revenue

$ 465,876 $ 62,207 $ 403,669 $ 46,422 $ 357,247

Income before income taxes

$ 61,567 $ 26,997 $ 34,570 $ 20,243 $ 14,327

Homes delivered

849 94 755 103 652

Average sales price

$ 548,212 $ 14,905 $ 533,307 $ (13,739 ) $ 547,046

Midwest

Homebuilding revenue

$ 262,770 $ 37,052 $ 225,718 $ 21,257 $ 204,461

Income (loss) before income taxes

$ 18,407 $ 20,212 $ (1,805 ) $ (1,156 ) $ (649 )

Homes delivered

773 46 727 47 680

Average sales price

$ 321,515 $ 11,565 $ 309,950 $ 10,341 $ 299,609

Southeast

Homebuilding revenue

$ 285,658 $ 52,928 $ 232,730 $ 12,648 $ 220,082

Income (loss) before income taxes

$ 17,764 $ 16,409 $ 1,355 $ 11,415 $ (10,060 )

Homes delivered

602 54 548 3 545

Average sales price

$ 458,816 $ 34,851 $ 423,965 $ 20,552 $ 403,413

Southwest

Homebuilding revenue

$ 903,178 $ 158,981 $ 744,197 $ 114,853 $ 629,344

Income before income taxes

$ 115,840 $ 47,656 $ 68,184 $ 34,725 $ 33,459

Homes delivered

2,531 298 2,233 367 1,866

Average sales price

$ 356,479 $ 23,608 $ 332,871 $ (3,250 ) $ 336,121

West

Homebuilding revenue

$ 641,219 $ 168,330 $ 472,889 $ 47,373 $ 425,516

Income before income taxes

$ 82,503 $ 66,088 $ 16,415 $ (23,603 ) $ 40,018

Homes delivered

1,248 173 1,075 64 1,011

Average sales price

$ 513,686 $ 73,885 $ 439,801 $ 19,105 $ 420,696

Homebuilding Results by Segment

Northeast - Homebuilding revenues decreased 25.8% in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a 42.2% decrease in homes delivered and a $14.2 million decrease in land sales and other revenue, partially offset by a 38.2% increase in average sales price. The increase in average sales price was mainly the result of price increases in certain communities.

Income before income taxes decreased $7.4 million to $22.9 million, which was mainly due to the decrease in homebuilding revenues discussed above, a $1.6 million increase in selling, general and administrative costs and a $7.4 million decrease in income from unconsolidated joint ventures, partially offset by an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020.

Homebuilding revenues increased 54.4% in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to an 81.3% increase in homes delivered and a $9.0 million increase in land sales and other revenue, partially offset by a 17.1% decrease in average selling price. The decrease in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering smaller single family homes, townhomes and affordable-housing homes in mid to higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2020 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2019 that had higher priced, single family homes in higher-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering. Also impacting the decrease in average sales price was an increase in pricing concessions and a decrease in location premiums in certain communities.

Income before income taxes increased $9.4 million to $30.4 million, which was mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above, a $0.5 million decrease in selling, general and administrative costs and a slight increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019. This increase was partially offset by an $8.2 million decrease in income from unconsolidated joint ventures for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019.

Mid-Atlantic - Homebuilding revenues increased 15.4% in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a 12.5% increase in homes delivered and a 2.8% increase in average sales price. The increase in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering higher priced, larger single family homes and townhomes in higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2021 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2020 that had lower priced, smaller single family homes and townhomes in lower-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering. Also impacting the increase in the average sales price was price increases in certain communities.

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Income before income taxes increased $27.0 million to $61.6 million, mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above, a $0.6 million decrease in selling, general and administrative costs and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020.

Homebuilding revenues increased 13.0% in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to a 15.8% increase in homes delivered, partially offset by a 2.5% decrease in average sales price. The decrease in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering lower priced, smaller single family homes and townhomes in lower-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2020 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2019 that had higher priced, larger single family homes and townhomes in higher-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering.

Income before income taxes increased $20.2 million to $34.6 million, mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above, a $2.0 million decrease in selling, general and administrative costs, a $0.8 million decrease in inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019.

Midwest - Homebuilding revenues increased 16.4% in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a 6.3% increase in homes delivered, a 3.7% increase in average sales price and a $13.9 million increase in land sales and other revenue. The increase in average sales price was mainly the result of price increases in certain communities.

Income before income taxes was $18.4 million in fiscal 2021, an improvement of $20.2 million compared to a loss before income taxes of $1.8 million in fiscal 2020. The increase was primarily due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above, a $3.5 million decrease in selling, general and administrative costs and a $5.5 million decrease in inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs, while gross margin percentage before interest expense was flat for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020.

Homebuilding revenues increased 10.4% in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to a 6.9% increase in homes delivered and a 3.5% increase in average sales price. The increase in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering higher priced, larger single family homes and townhomes in higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2020 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2019 that had lower priced, smaller single family homes in lower-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering.

Loss before income taxes increased $1.2 million to a loss of $1.8 million in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019. The increase was primarily due to a $3.2 million increase in inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs, while gross margin percentage before interest expense was flat for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019.

Southeast - Homebuilding revenues increased 22.7% in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a 9.9% increase in homes delivered, an 8.2% increase in average sales price and a $9.1 million increase in land sales and other revenue. The increase in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering higher priced, larger single family homes in higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2021 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2020 that had lower priced, smaller single family homes and townhomes in lower-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering. Also impacting the increase in average sales price was price increases in certain communities.

Income before income taxes increased $16.4 million to $17.8 million in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020, mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenue discussed above, a $1.2 million increase in income from unconsolidated joint ventures and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020.

Homebuilding revenues increased 5.7% in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to a 0.6% increase in homes delivered and a 5.1% increase in average sales price. The increase in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering higher priced, larger single family homes in higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2020 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2019 that had lower priced, smaller single family homes in lower-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering. Also impacting the increase in average sales price was price increases and higher location premium revenue in certain communities.

Income before income taxes of $1.4 million in fiscal 2020 represented an $11.4 million improvement from the prior year due to the increase in homebuilding revenue discussed above, a $3.9 million decrease in selling, general and administrative costs and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019.

Southwest - Homebuilding revenues increased 21.4% in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a 13.3% increase in homes delivered and a 7.1% increase in average sales price. The increase in the average sales price was due to price increases in certain communities.

Income before income taxes increased $47.7 million to $115.8 million in fiscal 2021 mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above, a $0.4 million decrease in inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020.

Homebuilding revenues increased 18.2% in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to a 19.7% increase in homes delivered, while average sales price was essentially flat with a 1.0% decrease in fiscal 2020 compared to the prior year.

Income before income taxes increased $34.7 million to $68.2 million in fiscal 2020 mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019.

West - Homebuilding revenues increased 35.6% in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a 16.1% increase in homes delivered and a 16.8% increase in average sales price. The increase in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering higher priced, larger single family homes in higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2021 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2020 that had lower priced, smaller single family homes in lower-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering. Also impacting the increase in average sales price was price increases in certain communities.

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Income before income taxes increased $66.1 million to $82.5 million in fiscal 2021 compared to the prior year mainly due to the increase in homebuilding revenues discussed above and an increase in gross margin percentage before interest expense for fiscal 2021 compared to the prior year, partially offset by a $1.3 million increase in inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs.

Homebuilding revenues increased 11.1% in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to a 6.3% increase in homes delivered and a 4.5% increase in average sales price. The increase in average sales price was the result of new communities delivering higher priced, larger single family homes in higher-end submarkets of the segment in fiscal 2020 compared to some communities delivering in fiscal 2019 that had lower priced, smaller single family homes in lower-end submarkets of the segment that are no longer delivering. Also impacting the increase in average sales price was price increases in certain communities.

Income before income taxes decreased $23.6 million to $16.4 million in fiscal 2020 compared to the prior year due mainly to a significant decrease in gross margin percentage before interest expense, partly as a result of increases in estimated land development costs in some of our communities in the segment.

Financial Services

Financial services consist primarily of originating mortgages from our home buyers, selling such mortgages in the secondary market, and title insurance activities. We use mandatory investor commitments and forward sales of MBS to hedge our mortgage-related interest rate exposure on agency and government loans. These instruments involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit and interest rate risk. Credit risk associated with MBS forward commitments and loan sales transactions is managed by limiting our counterparties to investment banks, federally regulated bank affiliates and other investors meeting our credit standards. Our risk, in the event of default by the purchaser, is the difference between the contract price and fair value of the MBS forward commitments. For the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, our conforming conventional loan originations as a percentage of our total loans were 71.9%, 69.1% and 65.8%, respectively. FHA/VA loans represented 27.4%, 29.8%, and 29.8%, respectively, of our total loans. The remaining 0.7%, 1.1% and 4.4% of our loan originations represent loans which exceed conforming conventions. Profits and losses relating to the sale of mortgage loans are recognized when legal control passes to the buyer of the mortgage and the sales price is collected.

During the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, financial services provided a $37.6 million, $32.1 million and $17.6 million pretax profit, respectively. In fiscal 2021 and 2020, financial services pretax profit increased $5.5 million and $14.5 million, respectively, from the respective prior year primarily due to the increase in homebuilding deliveries and an increase in the average price of the loans settled. Also impacting the increase in fiscal 2021 and 2020 was the increase in the basis point spread between the loans originated and the implied rate from the sale of the loans. In the market areas served by our wholly owned mortgage banking subsidiaries, 68.3%, 69.3%, and 70.9% of our noncash home buyers obtained mortgages originated by these subsidiaries during the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Corporate General and Administrative

Corporate general and administrative expenses include the operations at our headquarters in New Jersey. These expenses include payroll, stock compensation, legal expenses, rent and facility costs and other costs associated with our executive offices, information services, human resources, corporate accounting, training, treasury, process redesign, internal audit, national and digital marketing, construction services and administration of insurance, quality and safety. Corporate general and administrative expenses increased $26.1 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to the year ended October 31, 2020 and increased $14.2 million for the year ended October 31, 2020 compared to the year ended October 31, 2019. The increase in expense for fiscal 2021 was mainly due to the increase in total variable compensation expenses related to performance based compensation attributable to improved profitability and to the grants of phantom stock awards under our 2019 LTIP. The Company's phantom shares issued under the 2019 LTIP are classified as liabilities under the applicable accounting guidance, which requires remeasurement of the awards at each reporting period and consequently, has resulted in additional expense in fiscal 2021 as a result of movement in our stock price during the fiscal year. Had equity-classified shares been utilized for the 2019 LTIP, there would not have been additional expense recognized related to the movement in our stock price. The increase in expense for fiscal 2020 was mainly due to an increase in stock compensation expense, primarily attributed to our long-term incentive plans achieving above target metrics for the plan years 2018 and 2019 as a result of fiscal year 2020 profit. Also contributing to the increase in expense for fiscal 2020 were additional costs pertaining to software licenses and support fees for cybersecurity and monitoring services.

Other Interest

Other interest decreased $26.1 million to $77.7 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 compared to October 31, 2020, and increased $13.7 million to $103.8 million for the year ended October 31, 2020 compared to October 31, 2019. Our assets that qualify for interest capitalization (inventory under development) are less than our debt, and therefore a portion of interest not covered by qualifying assets must be directly expensed. In fiscal 2021, the decrease was primarily due to a decrease in nonrecourse mortgages, inventory financing arrangements and total notes payable as compared to the prior fiscal year. In fiscal 2020, the increase was because we incurred more interest from our third-party inventory financing during fiscal 2020, and as a result of the financing transactions we completed in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019 and the first quarter of fiscal 2020.

(Loss) Gain on Extinguishment of Debt

On July 30, 2021, the Company redeemed in full all $111.2 million aggregate principal amount of its 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022. The aggregate purchase price for this redemption was $111.7 million, which included accrued and unpaid interest. This redemption resulted in a loss on extinguishment of debt of $0.3 million for the year ended October 31, 2021, net of the write-off of unamortized financing costs and fees. The loss from the redemption is included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as "Loss on extinguishment of debt".

On August 2, 2021, the Company redeemed in full all $69.7 million aggregate principal amount of its 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024. The aggregate purchase price for this redemption was $71.9 million, which included accrued and unpaid interest. This redemption resulted in a loss on extinguishment of debt of $3.4 million for the year ended October 31, 2021, net of the write-off of unamortized discounts, financing costs and fees. The loss from the redemption is included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as "Loss on extinguishment of debt".

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On December 10, 2019, K. Hovnanian entered into a credit agreement providing for $81.5 million of senior secured 1.75 lien term loans in exchange for $163.0 million of senior unsecured term loans. On December 10, 2019, K. Hovnanian also issued $158.5 million of 10.0% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025 in exchange for $23.2 million of 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 and $141.7 million 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024. These transactions were accounted for in accordance with ASC 470-60, resulting in a net gain on extinguishment of debt of $9.2 million. During the year ended October 31, 2020, the Company repurchased in open market transactions $25.5 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022. The aggregate purchase price for these repurchases was $21.4 million, which included accrued and unpaid interest. These repurchases resulted in a gain on extinguishment of debt of $4.1 million for the year ended October 31, 2020, net of the write-off of unamortized financing costs and fees. The gains from the repurchases are included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as "Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt".

As a result of the financing transactions we consummated on October 31, 2019 and discussed under Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, we incurred a $42.4 million loss on extinguishment of debt, a majority of which was non-cash.

Income from Unconsolidated Joint Ventures

Income from unconsolidated joint ventures consists of our share of the earnings or losses of our joint ventures. Income from unconsolidated joint ventures decreased $7.8 million for the year ended October 31, 2021 from income of $16.6 million for the year ended October 31, 2020 to income of $8.8 million and decreased $12.3 million for the year ended October 31, 2020 from income of $28.9 million for the year ended October 31, 2019 to income of $16.6 million. In both cases, the decreases were primarily due to the recognition of our share of income from certain of our joint ventures delivering fewer homes in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 and in fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019. Also impacting the decrease in fiscal 2020 was income recorded in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 related to the return of capital from an unconsolidated joint venture for which we had previously written-off our investment.

Total Taxes

The total benefit for the year ended October 31, 2021 was $418.0 million. The benefit was primarily due to the reversal of a substantial portion of our valuation allowance previously recorded against our deferred tax assets. The total income tax expense of $4.5 million and $2.4 million for the years ended October 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, was primarily related to state tax expense from income generated in states where we do not have net operating loss ("NOL") carryforwards to offset the current year income. In addition, the expense for the year ended October 31, 2020 was also related to state tax expense from the impact of a cancellation of debt income recorded for tax purposes but not for GAAP purposes, creating a permanent difference.

Deferred federal and state income tax assets ("DTAs") primarily represent the deferred tax benefits arising from NOL carryforwards and temporary differences between book and tax income which will be recognized in future years as an offset against future taxable income. If the combination of future years' income (or loss) and the reversal of the timing differences results in a loss, such losses can be carried forward to future years. In accordance with ASC 740, we evaluate our DTAs quarterly to determine if valuation allowances are required. ASC 740 requires that companies assess whether valuation allowances should be established based on the consideration of all available evidence using a "more likely than not" standard.

As of October 31, 2021, we considered all available positive and negative evidence to determine whether, based on the weight of that evidence, our valuation allowance for our DTAs was appropriate in accordance with ASC 740. Based on our analysis, we determined that the current valuation allowance for deferred taxes of $101.6 million as of October 31, 2021, which partially reserves for our state DTAs, is appropriate. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

Contractual Obligations

The following summarizes our aggregate contractual commitments at October 31, 2021.

Payments Due by Period (1)

Less than

More than

(In thousands)

Total

1 year

1-3 years

3-5 years

5 years

Long term debt (2)(3)(4)

$ 1,840,207 $ 117,737 $ 235,475 $ 1,205,440 $ 281,555

Operating leases

21,981 9,000 9,143 3,838 -

Total

$ 1,862,188 $ 126,737 $ 244,618 $ 1,209,278 $ 281,555

(1)

Total contractual obligations exclude our accrual for uncertain tax positions of $0.8 million recorded for financial reporting purposes as of October 31, 2021 because we were unable to make reasonable estimates as to the period of cash settlement with the respective taxing authorities.

(2)

Represents our senior secured and unsecured term loan credit facilities, senior secured and senior notes and other notes payable and $585.4 million of related interest payments for the life of such debt.

(3)

Does not include $125.1 million of nonrecourse mortgages secured by inventory. These mortgages have various maturities spread over the next two to three years and are paid off as homes are delivered.

(4)

Does not include the mortgage warehouse lines of credit made under our Master Repurchase Agreements. See"- Capital Resources and Liquidity." Also does not include our $125.0 million Secured Credit Facility under which there were no borrowings outstanding as of October 31, 2021.

We had outstanding letters of credit and performance bonds of $9.3 million and $223.8 million, respectively, at October 31, 2021, related principally to our obligations to local governments to construct roads and other improvements in various developments. We do not believe that any such letters of credit or bonds are likely to be drawn upon.

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Inflation

The annual rate of inflation in the United States hit 6.2% in October 2021, the highest in more than three decades, as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Inflation has a long-term effect, because increasing costs of land, materials and labor result in increasing sale prices of our homes. In general, these

price increases have been commensurate with the general rate of inflation in our housing markets and have not had a significant adverse effect on the sale of our homes. A significant risk faced by the housing industry generally is that rising house construction costs, including land and interest costs, will substantially outpace increases in the income of potential purchasers and therefore limit our ability to raise home sale prices, which may result in lower gross margins.

Inflation has a lesser short-term effect, because we generally negotiate fixed price contracts with many, but not all, of our subcontractors and material suppliers for the construction of our homes. These prices usually are applicable for a specified number of residential buildings or for a time period of between three to twelve months. Construction costs for residential buildings represent approximately 53.7% of our homebuilding cost of sales for fiscal 2021.

Safe Harbor Statement

All statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not historical facts should be considered as "Forward-Looking Statements" within the meaning of the "Safe Harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include but are not limited to statements related to the Company's goals and expectations with respect to its financial results for future financial periods. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in, or suggested by, such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give no assurance that such plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. By their nature, forward-looking statements: (i) speak only as of the date they are made, (ii) are not guarantees of future performance or results and (iii) are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict or quantify. Therefore, actual results could differ materially and adversely from those forward-looking statements as result of a variety of factors. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors include, but are not limited to:

Changes in general and local economic, industry and business conditions and impacts of a significant homebuilding downturn;
Shortages in, and price fluctuations of, raw materials and labor, including due to changes in trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs and duties on homebuilding materials and products and related trade disputes with and retaliatory measures taken by other countries;
The outbreak and spread of COVID-19 and the measures that governments, agencies, law enforcement and/or health authorities implement to address it;

Adverse weather and other environmental conditions and natural disasters;

The seasonality of the Company's business;
The availability and cost of suitable land and improved lots and sufficient liquidity to invest in such land and lots;
Reliance on, and the performance of, subcontractors;
Regional and local economic factors, including dependency on certain sectors of the economy, and employment levels affecting home prices and sales activity in the markets where the Company builds homes;
Increases in cancellations of agreements of sale;
Fluctuations in interest rates and the availability of mortgage financing;
Changes in tax laws affecting the after-tax costs of owning a home;
Legal claims brought against us and not resolved in our favor, such as product liability litigation, warranty claims and claims made by mortgage investors;
Levels of competition;
Utility shortages and outages or rate fluctuations;
Information technology failures and data security breaches;
Negative publicity;

High leverage and restrictions on the Company's operations and activities imposed by the agreements governing the Company's outstanding indebtedness;

Availability and terms of financing to the Company;

The Company's sources of liquidity;

Changes in credit ratings;

Government regulation, including regulations concerning development of land, the home building, sales and customer financing processes, tax laws and the environment;

Operations through unconsolidated joint ventures with third parties;

Significant influence of the Company's controlling stockholders;

Availability of net operating loss carryforwards; and

Loss of key management personnel or failure to attract qualified personnel.

Certain risks, uncertainties and other factors are described in detail in Part I, Item 1 "Business" and Part I, Item 1A "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as updated by our subsequent filings with the SEC. Except as otherwise required by applicable securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or any other reason after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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ITEM 7A

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

A primary market risk facing us is interest rate risk on our long term debt, including debt instruments at variable interest rates. In connection with our mortgage operations, mortgage loans held for sale and the associated mortgage warehouse lines of credit under our Master Repurchase Agreements are subject to interest rate risk; however, such obligations reprice frequently and are short-term in duration. In addition, we hedge the interest rate risk on mortgage loans by obtaining forward commitments from private investors. Accordingly, the interest rate risk from mortgage loans is not material. We do not use financial instruments to hedge interest rate risk except with respect to mortgage loans. We are also subject to foreign currency risk but we do not believe this risk is material. The following tables set forth as of October 31, 2021 and 2020, our long-term debt obligations, principal cash flows by scheduled maturity, weighted-average interest rates and estimated fair value ("FV").

Long-Term Debt Tables

Long-Term Debt as of October 31, 2021 by Fiscal Year of Debt Maturity

FV at

(Dollars in thousands)

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

Thereafter

Total

10/31/2021

Long term debt(1)(2):

Fixed rate

$ - $ - $ - $ - $ 1,043,683 $ 211,169 $ 1,254,852 $ 1,266,892

Weighted-average interest rate

- % - % - % - % 9.88 % 6.93 % 9.38 %

(1) Does not include the mortgage warehouse lines of credit made under our Master Repurchase Agreements. Also does not include our $125.0 million Secured Credit Facility under which there were no borrowings outstanding as of October 31, 2021.

(2) Does not include $125.1 million of nonrecourse mortgages secured by inventory. These mortgages have various maturities spread over the next two to three years and are paid off as homes are delivered.

Long-Term Debt as of October 31, 2020 by Fiscal Year of Debt Maturity

FV at

(Dollars in thousands)

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

Thereafter

Total

10/31/2020

Long term debt(1)(2):

Fixed rate

$ - $ 111,214 $ - $ 69,683 $ - $ 1,254,852 $ 1,435,749 $ 1,241,570

Weighted-average interest rate

- % 10.00 % - % 10.50 % - % 9.38 % 9.48 %

(1) Does not include the mortgage warehouse lines of credit made under our Master Repurchase Agreements. Also does not include our $125.0 million Secured Credit Facility under which there were no borrowings outstanding as of October 31, 2020.

(2) Does not include $135.1 million of nonrecourse mortgages secured by inventory. These mortgages have various maturities spread over the next two to three years and are paid off as homes are delivered.

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ITEM 8

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Financial statements of Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries are set forth herein beginning on page 56.

ITEM 9

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

ITEM 9A

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the Company's reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC's rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company's management, including its chief executive officer and chief financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. Any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. The Company's management, with the participation of the Company's chief executive officer and chief financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of the Company's disclosure controls and procedures as of October 31, 2021. Based upon that evaluation and subject to the foregoing, the Company's chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that the design and operation of the Company's disclosure controls and procedures are effective to accomplish their objectives.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There was no change in the Company's internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended October 31, 2021 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f).

All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.

Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 Framework). Based on our evaluation under the framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of October 31, 2021.

The effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2021 has been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report below.

ITEM 9B

OTHER INFORMATION

None.

ITEM 9C

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDITIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

None.

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PART III

ITEM 10

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

The information called for by Item 10, except as set forth in this Item 10, is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on March 29, 2022, which will involve the election of directors.

Information About Our Executive Officers

Our executive officers are listed below and brief summaries of their business experience and certain other information with respect to them are set forth following the table. Each executive officer holds such office for a one-year term.

Year

Started

With

Name

Age

Position

Company

Ara K. Hovnanian

64

Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, President and Director of the Company

1979

J. Larry Sorsby

66

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Director of the Company

1988

Brad G. O'Connor

51

Senior Vice President, Treasurer and Chief Accounting Officer

2004

Mr. Hovnanian has been Chief Executive Officer since July 1997 after being appointed President in 1988 and Executive Vice President in 1983. Mr. Hovnanian joined the Company in 1979 and has been a Director of the Company since 1981 and was Vice Chairman from 1998 through November 2009. In November 2009, he was elected Chairman of the Board following the death of Kevork S. Hovnanian, the chairman and founder of the Company and the father of Mr. Hovnanian.

Mr. Sorsby has been Chief Financial Officer of Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. since 1996, and Executive Vice President since November 2000. Mr. Sorsby was also Senior Vice President from March 1991 to November 2000 and was elected as a Director of the Company in 1997. He is Chairman of the Board of Visitors for Urology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia ("CHOP") and also serves on the Foundation Board of Overseers at CHOP.

Mr. O'Connor joined the Company in April 2004 as Vice President and Associate Corporate Controller. In December 2007, he was promoted to Vice President, Corporate Controller and in May 2011, he also became Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer. In April 2020, Mr. O'Connor was promoted to Senior Vice President and Treasurer and continues in his role of Chief Accounting Officer. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. O'Connor was the Corporate Controller for Amershem Biosciences, and prior to that a Senior Manager in the audit practice of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.

Code of Ethics and Corporate Governance Guidelines

In more than 60 years of doing business, we have been committed to enhancing our shareholders' investment through conduct that is in accordance with the highest levels of integrity. Our Code of Ethics is a set of guidelines and policies that govern broad principles of ethical conduct and integrity embraced by our Company. Our Code of Ethics applies to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, chief accounting officer, and all other associates of our Company, including our directors and other officers.

We also remain committed to fostering sound corporate governance principles. The Company's Corporate Governance Guidelines assist the Board of Directors of the Company (the "Board") in fulfilling its responsibilities related to corporate governance conduct. These guidelines serve as a framework, addressing the function, structure, and operations of the Board, for purposes of promoting consistency of the Board's role in overseeing the work of management.

We have posted our Code of Ethics on our web site at www.khov.com under "Investor Relations/Corporate Governance." We have also posted our Corporate Governance Guidelines on our web site at www.khov.com under "Investor Relations/Corporate Governance." A printed copy of the Code of Ethics and Guidelines is also available to the public at no charge by writing to: Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Attn: Human Resources Department, 90 Matawan Road, Fifth Floor, Matawan, NJ 07747 or calling corporate headquarters at 732-747-7800. We will post amendments to or waivers from our Code of Ethics that are required to be disclosed by the rules of either the SEC or the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE") on our web site at www.khov.com under "Investor Relations/Corporate Governance."

Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee Charters

We have adopted charters that apply to the Company's Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee. We have posted the text of these charters on our web site at www.khov.com under "Investor Relations/Corporate Governance." A printed copy of each charter is available at no charge to any shareholder who requests it by writing to: Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Attn: Human Resources Department, 90 Matawan Road, Fifth Floor, Matawan, NJ 07747 or calling corporate headquarters at 732-747-7800.

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ITEM 11

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

The information called for by Item 11 is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on March 29, 2022.

ITEM 12

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

The information called for by Item 12, is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on March 29, 2022.

ITEM 13

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

The information called for by Item 13 is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on March 29, 2022.

ITEM 14

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

The information called for by Item 14 is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with our annual meeting of shareholders to be held on March 29, 2022.

PART IV

ITEM 15

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

Page

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

53

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

54

Consolidated Balance Sheets at October 31, 2021 and 2020

56

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

57

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity Deficit for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

58

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

59

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

61

No schedules have been prepared because the required information of such schedules is not present, is not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule, or because the required information is included in the financial statements and notes thereto.

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Exhibits:

3(a)

Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report of the Registrant on Form 8-K filed on March 29, 2019).

3(b)

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 3, 2018).

4(a)

Specimen Class A Common Stock Certificate (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report of the Registrant on Form 8-K filed on March 29, 2019).

4(b)

Specimen Class B Common Stock Certificate (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report of the Registrant on Form 8-K filed on March 29, 2019).

4(c)

Certificate of Designations, Powers, Preferences and Rights of the 7.625% Series A Preferred Stock of Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., dated July 12, 2005 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on July 13, 2005).

4(d)

Certificate of Designations of the Series B Junior Preferred Stock of Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., dated August 14, 2008 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2008 of the Registrant).

4(e)

Rights Agreement, dated as of August 14, 2008, between Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and National City Bank, as Rights Agent, which includes the Form of Certificate of Designation as Exhibit A, Form of Right Certificate as Exhibit B and the Summary of Rights as Exhibit C (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to the Registration Statement on Form 8-A of the Registrant filed August 14, 2008).

4(f)

Amendment No. 1 to Rights Agreement, dated as of January 11, 2018, between Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and Computershare Trust Company, N.A (as successor to National City Bank), as Rights Agent, which includes the amended and restated Form of Rights Certificate as Exhibit 1 and the amended and restated Summary of Rights as Exhibit 2 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed January 11, 2018).

4(g)

Amendment No. 2 to Rights Agreement, dated as of January 18, 2021, between Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and Computershare Trust Company, N.A (as successor to National City Bank), as Rights Agent, which includes the amended and restated Form of Rights Certificate as Exhibit 1 and the amended and restated Summary of Rights as Exhibit 2 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed January 19, 2021).

4(h) Indenture, dated as of February 1, 2018, relating to the 13.5% Senior Notes due 2026 and 5.0% Senior Notes due 2040, by and among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee, including the forms of 13.5% Senior Notes due 2026 and 5.0% Senior Notes due 2040 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed February 2, 2018).

4(i)

Second Supplemental Indenture, dated as of May 30, 2018, relating to the 13.5% Senior Notes due 2026 and 5.0% Senior Notes due 2040, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed May 30, 2018).

4(j)

Sixth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 13.5% Senior Notes due 2026 and 5.0% Senior Notes due 2040, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

4(k)

Indenture, dated as of November 5, 2014, relating to the 8.000% Senior Notes due 2027, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee, including the form of 8.000% Senior Notes (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed November 5, 2014).

4(l)

Eighteenth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of October 17, 2019, relating to the 8.000% Senior Notes due 2027, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

4(m)

Nineteenth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 8.000% Senior Notes due 2027, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

4(n)

Twentieth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of November 1, 2019, relating to 8.000% Senior Notes due 2027, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed November 5, 2019).

4(o)

Indenture, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent, including the form of 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

4(p)

First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of November 27, 2019, relating to the 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 3, 2019).

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4(q)

Indenture, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent, including the form of 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

4(r)

First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of November 27, 2019, relating to the 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 3, 2019).

4(s)

Tenth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of December 6, 2019, relating to the 10.500% Senior Secured Notes due 2024, by and among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 6, 2019).

4(t)

Indenture, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent, including the form of 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

4(u)

First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of November 27, 2019, relating to the 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 3, 2019).

4(v)

Indenture, dated as of December 10, 2019, relating to the 10.000% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent, including the form of 10.000% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

4(w)

Description of the Registrant's securities.(Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2019 of the Registrant).

4(x) Fourth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of March 25, 2020, relating to the additional 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the subsidiary guarantors named therein and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee and Collateral Agent, including the form of the additional 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant field on March 26, 2020).

10(a)

Credit Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, by and among K. Hovnanian Enterprises Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto, Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent, and the lenders party thereto (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(b)

First Amendment, dated as of November 27, 2019, to the Credit Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, among Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., K. Hovnanian Enterprises Inc., the subsidiary guarantors party thereto, the lenders party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as administrative agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 3, 2019).

10(c)

$212,500,000 Credit Agreement, dated as of January 29, 2018, by and among K. Hovnanian Enterprises Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto, Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent, and the lenders party thereto (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed February 2, 2018).

10(d)

First Amendment, dated as of May 14, 2018, to the $212,500,000 Credit Agreement, dated as of January 29, 2018, among Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., K. Hovnanian Enterprises Inc., the subsidiary guarantors party thereto, the lenders party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as administrative agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed May 14, 2018).

10(e)

Second Amendment, dated as of October 31, 2019, to the $212,500,000 Credit Agreement, dated as of January 29, 2018, among Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., K. Hovnanian Enterprises Inc., the subsidiary guarantors party thereto, the lenders party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as administrative agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2019 of the Registrant).

10(f)

Third Amended and Restated Mortgage Tax Collateral Agency Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Mortgage Tax Collateral Agent, Notes Collateral Agent and Junior Joint Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(g)

Credit Agreement, dated as of December 10, 2019, relating to the 1.75 Lien Term Loans, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the subsidiary guarantors named therein, Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent, and the lenders party thereto (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

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10(h)*

Form of 2019 Long-Term Incentive Program Award Agreement (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 30, 2019 of the Registrant).

10(i)*

Form of Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement (2012) for Ara K. Hovnanian (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2012 the Registrant).

10(j)*

Amended and Restated 2008 Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. Stock Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Appendix A to the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A of the Registrant filed on February 1, 2010).

10(k)*

Management Agreement dated August 12, 1983, for the management of properties by K. Hovnanian Investment Properties, Inc (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Registration Statement (No. 2-85198) on Form S-1 of the Registrant).

10(l)*

Management Agreement dated December 15, 1985, for the management of properties by K. Hovnanian Investment Properties, Inc (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2003 of the Registrant).

10(m)*

Executive Deferred Compensation Plan as amended and restated on January 1, 2014 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(n)*

Death and Disability Agreement between the Registrant and Ara K. Hovnanian, dated February 2, 2006 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended January 31, 2006 of the Registrant).

10(o)*

Form of Nonqualified Stock Option Agreement (Class B shares) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2008 of the Registrant).

10(p)*

Form of Stock Option Agreement for Directors (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2008 of the Registrant).

10(q)*

Form of 2018 Long-Term Incentive Program Award Agreement (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended January 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(r)*

Form of 2016 Long Term Incentive Program Award Agreement (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended January 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(s)*

Form of Change in Control Severance Protection Agreement entered into with Brad G. O'Connor (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended January 31, 2012 of the Registrant).

10(t)*

Form of Amendment to Outstanding Stock Option Grants (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 30, 2012 of the Registrant.).

10(u)*

Form of Amendment to 2011 Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement for Ara K. Hovnanian (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 30, 2012 of the Registrant.).

10(v)*

Form of Amendment to 2011 Incentive Stock Option Agreement for J. Larry Sorsby (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 30, 2012 of the Registrant.).

10(w)*

Form of Incentive Stock Option Agreement (2012) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2012 of the Registrant).

10(x)*

Form of Stock Option Agreement (2012) for Directors (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2012 of the Registrant).

10(y)*

Form of Letter Agreement entered into with Lucian Theon Smith III (Incorporated by reference to Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2017 of the Registrant).

10(z)*

Amendment to Form of Letter Agreement entered into with Lucian Theon Smith III (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended January 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(aa)*

Form of Incentive Stock Option Agreement (2014 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2014 of the Registrant).

10(bb)*

Form of Restricted Share Unit Agreement (2014 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2014 of the Registrant).

10(cc)*

Form of Stock Option Agreement for Directors (2014 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2014 of the Registrant).

10(dd)*

2012 Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. Amended and Restated Stock Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Appendix A to the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed on February 4, 2019).

10(ee)*

Form of 2020 Long-Term Incentive Program Award Agreement (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2020 of the Registrant).

10(ff)*

Form of Letter Agreement Relating to Change in Control Severance Protection Agreement entered into with Brad G. O'Connor (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended January 31, 2015 of the Registrant).

10(gg)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(hh)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class B (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(ii)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Gross Margin Performance Vesting) Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(jj)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Gross Margin Performance Vesting) Class B (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(kk)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Debt Reduction Performance Vesting) Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(ll)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Debt Reduction Performance Vesting) Class B (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(mm)*

Premium-Priced Incentive Stock Option Agreement Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(nn)*

Premium-Priced Non-qualified Stock Option Agreement Class B (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

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10(oo)*

Incentive Stock Option Agreement Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(pp)*

Restricted Share Unit Agreement Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(qq)*

Director Restricted Share Unit Agreement Class A (2016 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2016 of the Registrant).

10(rr)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Pre-tax Profit performance Vesting) Class A (2017 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2017 of the Registrant).

10(ss)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Pre-tax Profit performance Vesting) Class B (2017 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2017 of the Registrant).

10(tt)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Gross Margin Improvement Performance Vesting) Class A (2017 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2017 of the Registrant).

10(uu)*

Market Share Unit Agreement (Gross Margin Improvement Performance Vesting) Class B (2017 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2017 of the Registrant).

10(vv)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class A (Pre-tax Profit Performance Vesting) (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(ww)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class B (Pre-tax Profit Performance Vesting) (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(xx)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class A (Stock Multiplier Performance Vesting) (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(yy)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class B (Stock Multiplier Performance Vesting) (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(zz)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class A (Community Count Performance Vesting) (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(aaa)*

Market Share Unit Agreement Class B (Community Count Performance Vesting) (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(bbb)*

Premium-Priced Incentive Stock Option Agreement Class A (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(ccc)*

Premium-Priced Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement Class B (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(ddd)*

Incentive Stock Option Agreement Class A (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(eee)*

Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement Class B (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(fff)*

Director Stock Option Agreement Class A (2018 grants and thereafter) (Incorporated by reference to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2018 of the Registrant).

10(ggg)*

Retirement Agreement, dated as of May 18, 2020, between Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and Lucian T. Smith III (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended April 30, 2020 of the Registrant).

10(hhh)*

Amended and Restated 2020 Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. Stock Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Registration Statement on Form S-8 filed on March 30, 2021).

10(iii)

Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility, made by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(jjj)

Pledge Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility, given by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto to Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(kkk)

Trademark Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility, made by K. HOV IP II, Inc. in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(lll)

1.125 Lien Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026, made by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(mmm)

1.125 Lien Pledge Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026, given by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto to Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(nnn)

1.125 Lien Trademark Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, made by K. HOV IP II, Inc. in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(ooo)

1.25 Lien Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026, made by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(ppp)

1.25 Lien Pledge Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026, given by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto to Wilmington Trust, National Association, as the 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent and the Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(qqq)

1.25 Lien Trademark Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, by K. HOV IP II, Inc. in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

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10(rrr)

1.5 Lien Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026, made by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as the 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent and the Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(sss)

1.5 Lien Pledge Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, relating to the 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026, given by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto to Wilmington Trust, National Association, as the 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent and the Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(ttt)

1.5 Lien Trademark Security Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, made by K. HOV IP II, Inc. in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(uuu)

1.75 Lien Security Agreement, dated as of December 10, 2019, relating to the 10.000% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025 and the 1.75 Lien Term Loans, made by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as the 1.75 Lien Pari Passu Collateral Agent, the Joint First Lien Collateral Agent, Administrative Agent and 1.75 Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

10(vvv)

1.75 Lien Pledge Agreement, dated as of December 10, 2019, relating to the 10.000% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025 and the 1.75 Lien Term Loans, given by K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. and the other guarantors party thereto in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as the 1.75 Lien Pari Passu Collateral Agent and the Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

10(www)

1.75 Lien Trademark Security Agreement, dated as of December 10, 2019, made by K. HOV IP II, Inc. in favor of Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.75 Lien Pari Passu Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

10(xxx)

First Lien Collateral Agency Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent, 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(yyy)

First Lien Intercreditor Agreement, dated as of October 31, 2019, among K. Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc., the other guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent, 1.125 Lien Trustee, 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.25 Lien Trustee, 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.5 Lien Trustee, 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed on October 31, 2019).

10(zzz)

Joinder No. 1, dated as of December 10, 2019, to the First Lien Intercreditor Agreement and First Lien Collateral Agency Agreement, each dated as of October 31, 2019, among Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.75 Lien Trustee and 1.75 Pari Passu Lien Collateral Agent, and acknowledged by Wilmington Trust, National Association, as 1.75 Lien Collateral Agent, with acknowledged receipt by Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Senior Credit Agreement Administrative Agent, 1.125 Lien Trustee, 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.25 Lien Trustee, 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.5 Lien Trustee, 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

10(aaaa)

Joinder No. 2, dated as of December 10, 2019, to the First Lien Intercreditor Agreement and First Lien Collateral Agency Agreement, each dated as of October 31, 2019, among Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Administrative Agent and 1.75 Pari Passu Lien Collateral Agent, with acknowledged receipt by the Senior Credit Agreement Administrative Agent, 1.125 Lien Trustee, 1.125 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.25 Lien Trustee, 1.25 Lien Collateral Agent, 1.5 Lien Trustee, 1.5 Lien Collateral Agent and Joint First Lien Collateral Agent (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Current Report on Form 8-K of the Registrant filed December 11, 2019).

10(bbbb)* Form of 2020 Performance Share Unit Agreement (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2020 of the Registrant).
10(cccc)* Form of 2020 Performance Share Unit Agreement (Class B) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2020 of the Registrant).
10(dddd)* Form of 2020 Associate Restricted Share Unit Agreement (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2020 of the Registrant).
10(eeee)* Form of 2020 Associate Restricted Share Unit Agreement (Class B) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2020 of the Registrant).
10(ffff)* Form of Director Restricted Share Unit Agreement (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2020 of the Registrant).
10(gggg)* Form of 2021 Performance Share Unit Agreement - EBIT (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
10(hhhh)* Form of 2021 Performance Share Unit Agreement - EBIT (Class B) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
10(iiii)* Form of 2021 Performance Share Unit Agreement - Relative EBIT ROI (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
10(jjjj)* Form of 2021 Performance Share Unit Agreement - Relative EBIT ROI (Class B) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
10(kkkk)* Form of Director Restricted Share Unit Agreement (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
10(llll)* Form of 2021 Long-Term Incentive Program Award Agreement (Class A) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
10(mmmm)* Form of 2021 Long-Term Incentive Program Award Agreement (Class B) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibits to Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of the Registrant for the quarter ended July 31, 2021 of the Registrant).
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21

Subsidiaries of the Registrant.

23(a)

Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.

23(b)

Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.

23(c)

Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.

31(a)

Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) Certification of Chief Executive Officer.

31(b)

Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) Certification of Chief Financial Officer.

32(a)

Section 1350 Certification of Chief Executive Officer.

32(b)

Section 1350 Certification of Chief Financial Officer.

99(a)

Financial Statements of GTIS - HOV Holdings V, L.L.C.

99(b)

Financial Statements of GTIS - HOV Holdings VI, L.L.C.

101

The following financial information from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2021, formatted in inline Extensible Business Reporting Language (Inline XBRL): (i) the Consolidated Balance Sheets at October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, (ii) the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, (iii) the Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity Deficit for years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 (iv) the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, and (v) the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

104 Cover page from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2021, formatted in Inline XBRL (and contained in Exhibit 101).

* Management contracts or compensatory plans or arrangements.

The agreements and other documents filed as exhibits to this report are not intended to provide factual information or other disclosure other than the terms of the agreements or other documents themselves, and you should not rely on them for that purpose. In particular, any representations and warranties made by the Company in these agreements or other documents were made solely within the specific context of the relevant agreement or document and may not describe the actual state of affairs at the date they were made or at any other time.

ITEM 16

Form 10-K Summary

None.

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this Annual Report on Form 10-K to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC.

By:

/s/ ARA K. HOVNANIAN

Ara K. Hovnanian

Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive

Officer and President

January 4, 2022

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant on January 4, 2022, and in the capacities indicated.

/s/ ARA K. HOVNANIAN

Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, President and Director

Ara K. Hovnanian

(Principal Executive Officer)

/s/ J. LARRY SORSBY

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Director

J. Larry Sorsby

(Principal Financial Officer)

/s/ BRAD G. O'CONNOR

Senior Vice President, Treasurer and Chief Accounting Officer

Brad G. O'Connor

(Principal Accounting Officer)

/s/ EDWARD A. KANGAS

Chairman of Audit Committee and Director

Edward A. Kangas

/s/ JOSEPH A. MARENGI

Chairman of Compensation Committee and Director

Joseph A. Marengi

/s/ VINCENT PAGANO JR.

Chairman of Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee and Director

Vincent Pagano Jr.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Financial Statements:

Page

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

54

Consolidated Balance Sheets at October 31, 2021 and 2020

56

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

57

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity Deficit for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

58

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

59

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

61

No schedules have been prepared because the required information of such schedules is not present, is not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule, or because the required information is included in the financial statements and notes thereto.

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTINGFIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Hovnanian Enterprises Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Hovnanian Enterprises Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of October 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, equity deficit, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended October 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of October 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures to respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

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Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Income Taxes -Realizability of Deferred Tax Assets -Refer to Note 11 in the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company recognizes deferred income taxes for deferred tax benefits arising from NOL carryforwards and temporary differences between book and tax income which will be recognized in future years as an offset against future taxable income. A valuation allowance is provided to offset deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Future realization of deferred tax assets depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character. Sources of taxable income include future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, expected future taxable income, taxable income in prior carryback years if permitted under the tax law, and tax planning strategies. Management has determined that it is more likely than not that sufficient taxable income will be generated in the future to realize its deferred tax assets except for a portion related to state deferred tax assets. The Company's deferred tax assets as of October 31, 2021, were $425.7 million.

We identified management's determination that it is more likely than not that sufficient taxable income will be generated in the future to realize deferred tax assets as a critical audit matter because of the significant judgments and estimates management makes related to taxable income. This required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our income tax specialists, when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management's estimates of taxable income.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the determination that it is more likely than not that sufficient taxable income will be generated in the future to realize deferred tax assets included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of controls over deferred tax assets, including management's controls over the estimates of taxable income and the determination of whether it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will be realized.

We evaluated the reasonableness of the methods, assumptions, and judgments used by management to determine whether a valuation allowance was necessary.

With the assistance of our income tax specialists, we evaluated whether the sources of management's estimated taxable income were of the appropriate character and sufficient to utilize the deferred tax assets under the relevant tax law.

We evaluated management's ability to accurately estimate taxable income by comparing actual results to management's historical estimates and evaluating whether there have been any changes that would affect management's ability to continue accurately estimating taxable income.

We tested the reasonableness of management's estimates of taxable income by comparing the estimates to:

o

Internal budgets.

o

Historical taxable income, as adjusted for nonrecurring items.

o

Internal communications to management and the Board of Directors.

o

Forecasted information included in Company press releases as well as in analyst and industry reports for the Company and certain of its peer companies.

o

Management's history of carrying out its stated plans and its ability to carry out its plans considering contractual commitments, available financing, or debt covenants.

We evaluated whether the estimates of future taxable income were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP

New York, New York

January 4, 2022

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2009.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

October 31,

October 31,

2021 2020

ASSETS

Homebuilding:

Cash and cash equivalents

$ 245,970 $ 262,489

Restricted cash and cash equivalents

16,089 14,731

Inventories:

Sold and unsold homes and lots under development

1,019,541 921,594

Land and land options held for future development or sale

135,992 91,957

Consolidated inventory not owned

98,727 182,224

Total inventories

1,254,260 1,195,775

Investments in and advances to unconsolidated joint ventures

60,897 103,164

Receivables, deposits and notes, net

39,934 33,686

Property, plant and equipment, net

18,736 18,185

Prepaid expenses and other assets

56,186 58,705

Total homebuilding

1,692,072 1,686,735

Financial services

202,758 140,607

Deferred tax assets, net

425,678 -

Total assets

$ 2,320,508 $ 1,827,342

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

Homebuilding:

Nonrecourse mortgages secured by inventory, net of debt issuance costs

$ 125,089 $ 135,122

Accounts payable and other liabilities

426,381 359,274

Customers' deposits

68,295 48,286

Liabilities from inventory not owned, net of debt issuance costs

62,762 131,204

Senior notes and credit facilities (net of discounts, premiums and debt issuance costs)

1,248,373 1,431,110

Accrued interest

28,154 35,563

Total homebuilding

1,959,054 2,140,559

Financial services

182,219 119,045

Income taxes payable

3,851 3,832

Total liabilities

2,145,124 2,263,436

Equity:

Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. stockholders' equity deficit:

Preferred stock, $0.01par value - authorized 100,000shares; issued and outstanding 5,600shares with a liquidation preference of $140,000at October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020

135,299 135,299

Common stock, Class A, $0.01par value - authorized 16,000,000shares; issued 6,066,164shares at October 31, 2021 and 5,990,310shares at October 31, 2020

61 60

Common stock, Class B, $0.01par value (convertible to Class A at time of sale) - authorized 2,400,000shares; issued 686,876shares at October 31, 2021 and 649,886shares at October 31, 2020

7 7

Paid in capital - common stock

722,118 718,110

Accumulated deficit

(567,228 ) (1,175,045 )

Treasury stock - at cost - 470,430shares of Class A common stock and 27,669shares of Class B common stock at October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020

(115,360 ) (115,360 )

Total Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. stockholders' equity (deficit)

174,897 (436,929 )

Noncontrolling interest in consolidated joint ventures

487 835

Total equity (deficit)

175,384 (436,094 )

Total liabilities and equity

$ 2,320,508 $ 1,827,342

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands except per share data)

2021

2020

2019

Revenues:

Homebuilding:

Sale of homes

$ 2,673,710 $ 2,252,029 $ 1,949,682

Land sales and other revenues

27,455 19,710 13,082

Total homebuilding

2,701,165 2,271,739 1,962,764

Financial services

81,692 72,162 54,152

Total revenues

2,782,857 2,343,901 2,016,916

Expenses:

Homebuilding:

Cost of sales, excluding interest

2,110,196 1,848,486 1,604,777

Cost of sales interest

84,100 74,330 70,725

Inventory impairment loss and land option write-offs

3,630 8,813 6,288

Total cost of sales

2,197,926 1,931,629 1,681,790

Selling, general and administrative

169,892 161,261 166,784

Total homebuilding expenses

2,367,818 2,092,890 1,848,574

Financial services

44,129 40,060 36,525

Corporate general and administrative

106,694 80,553 66,364

Other interest

77,716 103,801 90,056

Other operations

1,740 1,096 1,561

Total expenses

2,598,097 2,318,400 2,043,080

(Loss) gain on extinguishment of debt

(3,748 ) 13,337 (42,436 )

Income from unconsolidated joint ventures

8,849 16,565 28,932

Income (loss) before income taxes

189,861 55,403 (39,668 )

State and federal income tax (benefit) provision:

State

(82,348 ) 4,475 2,449

Federal

(335,608 ) - -

Total income taxes

(417,956 ) 4,475 2,449

Net income (loss)

$ 607,817 $ 50,928 $ (42,117 )

Per share data:

Basic:

Net income (loss) per common share

$ 87.50 $ 7.48 $ (7.06 )

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding

6,287 6,189 5,968

Assuming dilution:

Net income (loss) per common share

$ 85.86 $ 7.03 $ (7.06 )

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding

6,395 6,584 5,968

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY DEFICIT

A Common Stock

B Common Stock

Preferred Stock

(Dollars In thousands)

Shares

Shares

Shares

Issued and

Issued and

Issued and

Paid-In

Accumulated

Treasury

Noncontrolling

Outstanding

Amount

Outstanding

Amount

Outstanding

Amount

Capital

Deficit

Stock

Interest

Total

Balance, October 31, 2018

5,313,428 $ 58 622,004 $ 6 5,600 $ 135,299 $ 710,349 $ (1,183,856 ) $ (115,360 ) $ - $ (453,504 )

Stock options, amortization and issuances

808 808

Restricted stock amortization, issuances and forfeitures

11,210 922 1 (126 ) (125 )

Issuance of shares for debt

178,427 2 4,473 4,475

Conversion of Class B to Class A common stock

232 (232 ) -

Changes in noncontrolling interest in consolidated joint ventures

687 687

Net (loss)

(42,117 ) (42,117 )

Balance, October 31, 2019

5,503,297 $ 60 622,694 $ 7 5,600 $ 135,299 $ 715,504 $ (1,225,973 ) $ (115,360 ) $ 687 $ (489,776 )

Stock options, amortization and issuances

387 387

Restricted stock amortization, issuances and forfeitures

14,310 1,796 2,219 2,219

Conversion of Class B to Class A common stock

2,273 (2,273 ) -

Changes in noncontrolling interest in consolidated joint ventures

148 148

Net income

50,928 50,928

Balance, October 31, 2020

5,519,880 $ 60 622,217 $ 7 5,600 $ 135,299 $ 718,110 $ (1,175,045 ) $ (115,360 ) $ 835 $ (436,094 )

Stock options, amortization and issuances

42,204 5,368 (41 ) (41 )

Restricted stock amortization, issuances and forfeitures

33,564 1 31,708 4,049 4,050

Conversion of Class B to Class A common stock

86 (86 ) -

Changes in noncontrolling interest in consolidated joint ventures

(348 ) (348 )

Net income

607,817 607,817

Balance, October 31, 2021

5,595,734 $ 61 659,207 $ 7 5,600 $ 135,299 $ 722,118 $ (567,228 ) $ (115,360 ) $ 487 $ 175,384

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

2021 2020 2019

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net income (loss)

$ 607,817 $ 50,928 $ (42,117 )

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

Depreciation

5,280 5,304 4,172

Compensation from stock options and awards

7,668 2,779 721

Amortization of bond discounts, premiums and deferred financing costs

242 1,891 8,128

Loss (gain) on sale and retirement of property and assets

92 (81 ) (25 )

Income from unconsolidated joint ventures

(8,849 ) (16,565 ) (28,932 )

Distributions of earnings from unconsolidated joint venture

9,709 35,387 29,919

Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt

3,748 (13,337 ) 42,436

Noncontrolling interest in consolidated joint ventures

430 148 4

Inventory impairment and land option write-offs

3,630 8,813 6,288

(Increase) decrease in assets:

Origination of mortgage loans

(1,490,099 ) (1,306,279 ) (1,089,825 )

Sale of mortgage loans

1,443,355 1,367,903 1,054,535

Receivables, prepaids, deposits and other assets

(3,016 ) 20,519 (15,911 )

Inventories

(35,514 ) 87,897 (220,608 )

Deferred tax assets

(425,678 ) - -

Increase (decrease) in liabilities:

State income tax payable

19 1,531 (1,033 )

Customers' deposits

20,009 12,414 5,786

Accounts payable, accrued interest and other accrued liabilities

71,370 33,576 (2,665 )

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

210,213 292,828 (249,127 )

Cash flows from investing activities:

Proceeds from sale of property and assets

32 112 29

Purchase of property, equipment, and other fixed assets and acquisitions

(5,942 ) (3,380 ) (4,005 )

Investment in and advances to unconsolidated joint ventures

(16,550 ) (19,924 ) (13,256 )

Distributions of capital from unconsolidated joint ventures

31,456 25,332 8,925

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

8,996 2,140 (8,307 )

Cash flows from financing activities:

Proceeds from mortgages and notes

252,930 278,577 318,462

Payments related to mortgages and notes

(262,609 ) (348,371 ) (209,445 )

Proceeds from model sale leaseback financing programs

7,606 19,200 33,188

Payments related to model sale leaseback financing programs

(23,677 ) (23,646 ) (25,791 )

Proceeds from land bank financing programs

35,282 68,060 104,961

Payments related to land bank financing programs

(88,458 ) (73,999 ) (33,902 )

Proceeds from partner distributions to consolidated joint venture

40 - 683

Payments for partner distributions to consolidated joint venture

(818 ) - -

Net proceeds (payments) related to mortgage warehouse lines of credit

47,744 (53,077 ) 27,101

Net borrowings from senior secured credit facility

- 125,000 -

Payments related to senior secured credit facility

- (125,000 ) -

Proceeds from senior secured notes, net of discount

- - 578,231

Payments related to senior secured notes, net of discount

(182,726 ) (21,240 ) (570,032 )

Deferred financing costs from land banking financing programs and note issuances

(2,587 ) (13,278 ) (16,748 )

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

(217,273 ) (167,774 ) 206,708

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash and cash equivalents

1,936 127,194 (50,726 )

Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash and cash equivalents balance, beginning of period

309,460 182,266 232,992

Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash and cash equivalents balance, end of period

$ 311,396 $ 309,460 $ 182,266

Supplemental disclosures of cash flows:

Cash paid during the period for:

Interest, net of capitalized interest (see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements)

$ 87,227 $ 89,484 $ 109,107

Income taxes

$ 7,669 $ 3,013 $ 3,483

Reconciliation of Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

Homebuilding: Cash and cash equivalents

$ 245,970 $ 262,489 $ 130,976

Homebuilding: Restricted cash and cash equivalents

16,089 14,731 20,905

Financial Services: Cash and cash equivalents, included in Financial services assets

5,819 4,854 5,578

Financial Services: Restricted cash and cash equivalents, included in Financial services assets

43,518 27,386 24,807

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the statement of cash flows

$ 311,396 $ 309,460 $ 182,266

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

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Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities:

In the third and fourth quarters of fiscal 2021, we acquired the remaining assets of certain of our unconsolidated joint ventures, resulting in a $26.6 million reduction in our investment in the joint ventures and a corresponding increase to inventory.

In accordance with the adoption of ASU 2016-02, in the first quarter of fiscal 2020, we recorded a beginning right-of-use asset of $23.3 million and a right-of-use lease liability of $24.4 million.

In the first quarter of fiscal 2020, K. Hovnanian, the issuer of our notes, completed a debt for debt exchange whereby it issued $158.5 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025 in exchange for $23.2 million in aggregate principal amount of its outstanding 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 and $141.7 million in aggregate principal amount of its outstanding 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024. K. Hovnanian also exchanged $163.0 million in aggregate principal amount of its unsecured term loans for $81.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 1.75 Lien secured term loans made under a new Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Term Loan Credit Facility due January 31, 2028. See Note 9 for further information.

In the second quarter of fiscal 2020, K. Hovnanian, the issuer of the notes, completed a debt for debt exchange whereby it issued $59.1 million aggregate principal amount of additional 11.25% 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026 in exchange for $59.1 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 Notes. See Note 9 for further information.

In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019, we completed a partial debt for debt exchange of existing 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 and 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024 for a combination of cash and newly issued 7.75% 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026 and 11.25% 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026. See Note 9 for further information.

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HOVNANIAN ENTERPRISES, INC.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

1. Basis of Presentation

Basis of Presentation - The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("US GAAP") and include Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc.'s ("HEI") accounts and those of all its consolidated subsidiaries, after elimination of all intercompany balances and transactions. HEI's fiscal year ends October 31. Noncontrolling interest represents the proportionate equity interest in a consolidated joint venture that is not100% owned by the Company. One of HEI's subsidiaries owns a 99% controlling interest in the consolidated joint venture and therefore HEI is required to consolidate the joint venture within its Consolidated Financial Statements. The 1% that we do not own is accounted for as noncontrolling interest. Another one of HEI's subsidiaries owns an 80% controlling interest in a consolidated joint venture, and therefore HEI is required to consolidate the joint venture within its Consolidated Financial Statements. The 20% that the Company does not own is accounted for as noncontrolling interest.

2. Business

HEI conducts all of its homebuilding and financial services operations through its subsidiaries (references herein to the "Company", "we", "us" or "our" refer to HEI and its consolidated subsidiaries and should be understood to reflect the consolidated business of HEI's subsidiaries). Our operations consist of homebuilding, financial services and corporate. Our homebuilding operations are made up of six reportable segments defined as Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and West. Homebuilding operations comprise the substantial part of our business, representing approximately 97% of consolidated revenues for each of the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019. HEI is a Delaware corporation, which through its subsidiaries, was building and selling homes in Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C. and West Virginia, including in 124 consolidated active selling communities at October 31, 2021. Our homebuilding subsidiaries offer a wide variety of homes that are designed to appeal to first-time buyers, first and second-time move-up buyers, luxury buyers, active lifestyle buyers and empty nesters. Our financial services operations, which are a reportable segment, provide mortgage banking and title services to the homebuilding operations' customers. Our financial services subsidiaries do not typically retain or service the mortgages that they originate but rather sell the mortgages and related servicing rights to investors. Corporate primarily includes the operations of our corporate office whose primary purpose is to provide executive services, accounting, information services, human resources, management reporting, training, cash management, internal audit, risk management, and administration of process redesign, quality, and safety.

See Note 10 "Operating and Reporting Segments" for further disclosure of our reportable segments.

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and these differences could have a significant impact on the financial statements.

Income Recognition from Home and Land Sales - We are primarily engaged in the development, construction, marketing and sale of residential single-family and multi-family homes where the planned construction cycle is less than 12 months. For these homes, in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606-10, " Revenue from Contracts with Customers," revenue is recognized when control is transferred to the buyer, which occurs when the buyer takes title to and possession of the home and there is no continuing involvement. From time to time as market conditions warrant, the Company offers sales incentives which enable customers to reduce the base price of a home or to reduce the price of options. These incentives are recorded as a reduction of revenue in accordance with ASC 606-10-32-25.

Income Recognition from Mortgage Loans - Our Financial Services segment originates mortgages, primarily for our homebuilding customers. We use mandatory investor commitments and forward sales of mortgage-backed securities ("MBS") to hedge our mortgage-related interest rate exposure on agency and government loans.

We elected the fair value option for our mortgage loans held for sale in accordance with ASC 825, "Financial Instruments," which permits us to measure our loans held for sale at fair value. Management believes that the election of the fair value option for loans held for sale improves financial reporting by mitigating volatility in reported earnings caused by measuring the fair value of the loans and the derivative instruments used to economically hedge them without having to apply complex hedge accounting provisions.

Substantially all of the mortgage loans originated are sold within a short period of time in the secondary mortgage market on a servicing released, nonrecourse basis, although the Company remains liable for certain limited representations, such as fraud, and warranties related to loan sales. Mortgage investors could seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them from losses incurred on mortgages we have sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations and warranties. We have established reserves for probable losses.

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Cash and Cash Equivalents - Cash represents cash deposited in checking accounts. Cash equivalents include certificates of deposit, Treasury bills and government money-market funds with maturities of 90 days or less when purchased. Our cash balances are held at a few financial institutions and may, at times, exceed insurable amounts. We believe we help to mitigate this risk by depositing our cash in major financial institutions. At October 31, 2021 and 2020, $15.7 million and $15.5 million, respectively, of the total cash and cash equivalents was in cash equivalents and restricted cash equivalents, the book value of which approximates fair value.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments - The fair value of financial instruments is determined by reference to various market data and other valuation techniques as appropriate. Our financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents, receivables, deposits and notes, accounts payable and other liabilities, customer deposits, mortgage loans held for sale, nonrecourse mortgages, mortgage warehouse lines of credit, senior secured revolving credit facility, accrued interest, senior secured term loan, senior unsecured term loan credit facility, senior secured notes and senior notes. The fair value of the senior secured credit facility, senior secured term loan, senior unsecured term loan credit facility, senior secured notes and senior notes is estimated based on the quoted market prices for the same or similar issues or on the current rates offered to us for debt of the same remaining maturities or when not available, are estimated based on third-party broker quotes or management's estimate of the fair value based on available trades for similar debt instruments. The fair value of all of our other financial instruments approximates their carrying amounts.

Inventories - Inventories consist of land, land development, home construction costs, capitalized interest, construction overhead and property taxes. Construction costs are accumulated during the period of construction and charged to cost of sales under specific identification methods. Land, land development and common facility costs are allocated based on buildable acres to product types within each community, then charged to cost of sales equally based upon the number of homes to be constructed in each product type.

We record inventories in our consolidated balance sheets at cost unless the inventory is determined to be impaired, in which case the inventory is written down to its fair value. Our inventories consist of the following three components: (1) sold and unsold homes and lots under development, which includes all construction, land, capitalized interest and land development costs related to started homes and land under development in our active communities; (2) land and land options held for future development or sale, which includes all costs related to land in our communities in planning or mothballed communities; and (3) consolidated inventory not owned, which includes all costs related to variable interest entities, and other options, which consists primarily of model homes financed with an investor and inventory related to land banking arrangements accounted for as financings.

We decide to mothball (or stop development on) certain communities when we determine that the current performance does not justify further investment at the time. When we decide to mothball a community, the inventory is reclassified on our Consolidated Balance Sheets from "Sold and unsold homes and lots under development" to "Land and land options held for future development or sale." During fiscal 2021, we did notmothball any additional communities, but we sold four previously mothballed communities and we re-activated two previously mothballed communities and portions of two previously mothballed communities. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, the net book value associated with our 6 and 12 total mothballed communities was $4.3 million and $11.4 million, respectively, which was net of impairment charges recorded in prior periods of $57.5 million and $122.2 million, respectively.

We sell and lease back certain of our model homes with the right to participate in the potential profit when each home is sold to a third party at the end of the respective lease. As a result of our continued involvement, for accounting purposes in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-68, these sale and leaseback transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. Therefore, for purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheets, at October 31, 2021 and 2020, inventory of $32.5 million and $48.8 million, respectively, was recorded to "Consolidated inventory not owned," with a corresponding amount of $31.5 million and $47.2 million, respectively, recorded to "Liabilities from inventory not owned" for the amount of net cash received from the transactions.

We have land banking arrangements, whereby we sell our land parcels to the land banker and they provide us an option to purchase back finished lots on a predetermined schedule. Because of our options to repurchase these parcels, for accounting purposes, in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-70, these transactions are considered a financing rather than a sale. For purposes of our Consolidated Balance Sheets, at October 31, 2021 and 2020, inventory of $66.2 million and $133.4 million, respectively, was recorded to "Consolidated inventory not owned," with a corresponding amount of $31.3 million and $84.0 million, respectively, recorded to "Liabilities from inventory not owned" for the amount of net cash received from the transactions.

The recoverability of inventories and other long-lived assets is assessed in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360-10, "Property, Plant and Equipment - Overall." ASC 360-10 requires long-lived assets, including inventories, held for development to be evaluated for impairment based on undiscounted future cash flows of the assets at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows. As such, we evaluate inventories for impairment at the individual community level, the lowest level of discrete cash flows that we measure.

We evaluate inventories of communities under development and held for future development for impairment when indicators of potential impairment are present. Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to, decreases in local housing market values, decreases in gross margins or sales absorption rates, decreases in net sales prices (base sales price net of sales incentives), or actual or projected operating or cash flow losses. The assessment of communities for indication of impairment is performed quarterly. As part of this process, we prepare detailed budgets for all of our communities at least semi-annually and identify those communities with a projected operating loss. For those communities with projected losses, we estimate the remaining undiscounted future cash flows and compare those to the carrying value of the community, to determine if the carrying value of the asset is recoverable.

The projected operating profits, losses or cash flows of each community can be significantly impacted by our estimates of the following:

future base selling prices;

future home sales incentives;

future home construction and land development costs; and

future sales absorption pace and cancellation rates.

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These estimates are dependent upon specific market conditions for each community. While we consider available information to determine what we believe to be our best estimates as of the end of a quarterly reporting period, these estimates are subject to change in future reporting periods as facts and circumstances change. Local market-specific conditions that may impact our estimates for a community include:

the intensity of competition within a market, including available home sales prices and home sales incentives offered by our competitors;

the current sales absorption pace for both our communities and competitor communities;

community-specific attributes, such as location, availability of lots in the market, desirability and uniqueness of our community, and the size and style of homes currently being offered;

potential for alternative product offerings to respond to local market conditions;

changes by management in the sales strategy of the community;

current local market economic and demographic conditions and related trends and forecasts; and

existing home inventory supplies, including foreclosures and short sales.

These and other local market-specific conditions that may be present are considered by management in preparing projection assumptions for each community. The sales objectives can differ between our communities, even within a given market. For example, facts and circumstances in a given community may lead us to price our homes with the objective of yielding a higher sales absorption pace, while facts and circumstances in another community may lead us to price our homes to minimize deterioration in our gross margins, although it may result in a slower sales absorption pace. In addition, the key assumptions included in our estimate of future undiscounted cash flows may be interrelated. For example, a decrease in estimated base sales price or an increase in homes sales incentives may result in a corresponding increase in sales absorption pace. Additionally, a decrease in the average sales price of homes to be sold and closed in future reporting periods for one community that has not been generating what management believes to be an adequate sales absorption pace may impact the estimated cash flow assumptions of a nearby community. Changes in our key assumptions, including estimated construction and development costs, absorption pace and selling strategies, could materially impact future cash flow and fair value estimates. Due to the number of possible scenarios that would result from various changes in these factors, we do not believe it is possible to develop a sensitivity analysis with a level of precision that would be meaningful to an investor.

If the undiscounted cash flows are more than the carrying value of the community, then the carrying amount is recoverable, and no impairment adjustment is required. However, if the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount, then the community is deemed impaired and is written down to its fair value. We determine the estimated fair value of each community by determining the present value of its estimated future cash flows at a discount rate commensurate with the risk of the respective community, or in limited circumstances, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale), and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties. Our discount rates used for all impairments recorded from October 31, 2019 to October 31, 2021 ranged from 17.3% to 19.3%. The estimated future cash flow assumptions are virtually the same for both our recoverability and fair value assessments. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated cash flows or fair value, including discount rates, decrease or differ from current estimates in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairments related to current and future communities. The impairment of a community is allocated to each lot on a relative fair value basis.

From time to time, we write off deposits and approval, engineering and capitalized interest costs when we determine that it is no longer probable that we will exercise options to buy land in specific locations or when we redesign communities and/or abandon certain engineering costs. In deciding not to exercise a land option, we take into consideration changes in market conditions, the timing of required land takedowns, the willingness of land sellers to modify terms of the land option contract (including timing of land takedowns), and the availability and best use of our capital, among other factors. The write-off is recorded in the period it is deemed not probable that the optioned property will be acquired. In certain instances, we have been able to recover deposits and other pre-acquisition costs that were previously written off. These recoveries have not been significant in comparison to the total costs written off.

Inventories held for sale are land parcels ready for sale in their current condition, where we have decided not to build homes but are instead actively marketing for sale. These land parcels represented $2.0 million of our total inventories at October 31, 2020 and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. There were no inventories held for sale at October 31, 2021. In determining fair value for land held for sale, management considers, among other things, prices for land in recent comparable sale transactions, market analysis studies, which include the estimated price a willing buyer would pay for the land (other than in a forced liquidation sale) and recent bona fide offers received from outside third parties.

Warranty Costs and Construction Defect Reserves - We accrue for warranty costs that are covered under our existing general liability and construction defect policy as part of our general liability insurance deductible. This accrual is expensed as selling, general and administrative costs. For homes delivered in fiscal 2021 and 2020, our deductible under our general liability insurance was a $20 million aggregate for construction defect and warranty claims. For bodily injury claims, our deductible per occurrence in fiscal 2021 and 2020 was $0.25 million, up to a $5 million limit. Our aggregate retention for construction defect, warranty and bodily injury claims was $20 million for fiscal 2021 and 2020. We do not have a deductible on our worker's compensation insurance. Reserves for estimated losses for construction defects, warranty and bodily injury claims have been established using the assistance of a third-party actuary. We engage a third-party actuary that uses our historical warranty and construction defect data to assist our management in estimating our unpaid claims, claim adjustment expenses and incurred but not reported claims reserves for the risks that we are assuming under the general liability and construction defect programs. The estimates include provisions for inflation, claims handling and legal fees. These estimates are subject to a high degree of variability due to uncertainties such as trends in construction defect claims relative to our markets and the types of products we build, claim settlement patterns, insurance industry practices and legal interpretations, among others. Because of the high degree of judgment required in determining these estimated liability amounts, actual future costs could differ significantly from our currently estimated amounts. In addition, we establish a warranty accrual for lower cost-related issues to cover home repairs, community amenities and land development infrastructure that are not covered under our general liability and construction defect policy. We accrue an estimate for these warranty costs as part of cost of sales at the time each home is closed and title and possession have been transferred to the homebuyer. See Note 16 for additional information on the amount of warranty costs recognized in cost of goods sold and administrative expenses.

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Interest - Interest attributable to properties under development during the land development and home construction period is capitalized and expensed along with the associated cost of sales as the related inventories are sold. Interest incurred in excess of interest capitalized, which occurs when assets qualifying for interest capitalization are less than our outstanding debt balances, is expensed as incurred in "Other interest."

Interest costs incurred, expensed and capitalized were:

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Interest capitalized at beginning of year

$ 65,010 $ 71,264 $ 68,117

Plus interest incurred(1)

155,514 176,457 165,906

Less cost of sales interest expensed

84,100 74,330 70,725

Less other interest expensed(2)(3)

77,716 103,801 90,056

Less interest contributed to unconsolidated joint venture(4)

3,667 4,580 1,978

Plus interest acquired from unconsolidated joint venture(5)

3,118 - -

Interest capitalized at end of year(6)

$ 58,159 $ 65,010 $ 71,264

(1)

Data does not include interest incurred by our mortgage and finance subsidiaries.

(2)

Other interest expensed includes interest that does not qualify for interest capitalization because our assets that qualify for interest capitalization (inventory under development) do not exceed our debt, which amounted to $57.1 million, $61.9 million and $56.9 million for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Other interest also includes interest on completed homes, land in planning and fully developed lots without homes under construction, which does not qualify for capitalization, and therefore, is expensed. This component of other interest was $20.6 million, $41.9 million and $33.2 million for the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

(3)

Cash paid for interest, net of capitalized interest, is the sum of other interest expensed, as defined above, and interest paid by our mortgage and finance subsidiaries adjusted for the change in accrued interest on notes payable, which is calculated as follows:

Year Ended

October 31,

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Other interest expensed

$ 77,716 $ 103,801 $ 90,056

Interest paid by our mortgage and finance subsidiaries

2,102 2,165 2,536

Decrease (increase) in accrued interest

7,409 (16,482 ) 16,515

Cash paid for interest, net of capitalized interest

$ 87,227 $ 89,484 $ 109,107

(4)

Represents capitalized interest which was included as part of the assets contributed to joint ventures, as discussed in Note 20. There was no impact to the Consolidated Statement of Operations as a result of these transactions.

(5)

Represents capitalized interest which was included as part of the assets purchased from joint ventures, as discussed in Note 20. There was no impact to the Consolidated Statement of Operations as a result of these transactions.

(6)

Capitalized interest amounts are shown gross before allocating any portion of impairments, if any, to capitalized interest.

Land Options - Costs incurred to obtain options to acquire improved or unimproved home sites are capitalized. Such amounts are either included as part of the purchase price if the land is acquired or charged to "Inventory impairments loss and land option write-offs" if we determine we will not exercise the option. In accordance with ASC 810-10 "Consolidation - Overall," we record costs associated with other options on the Consolidated Balance Sheets under "Land and land options held for future development or sale." If the options are with variable interest entities and we are the primary beneficiary, we record the land under option on the Consolidated Balance Sheets under "Consolidated inventory not owned" with an offset under "Liabilities from inventory not owned." If the option has terms that require us to record it as financing, then we record the option on the Consolidated Balance Sheets under "Consolidated inventory not owned" with an offset under "Liabilities from inventory not owned."

Unconsolidated Homebuilding and Land Development Joint Ventures - Investments in unconsolidated homebuilding and land development joint ventures are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, we recognize our proportionate share of earnings and losses earned by the joint venture upon the delivery of lots or homes to third parties. Our ownership interests in the joint ventures vary but our voting interests are generally 50% or less. In determining whether or not we must consolidate joint ventures where we are the managing member of the joint venture, we assess whether the other partners have specific rights to overcome the presumption of control by us as the manager of the joint venture. In most cases, the presumption is overcome because the joint venture agreements require that both partners agree on establishing the significant operating and capital decisions of the partnership, including budgets, in the ordinary course of business. The evaluation of whether or not we control a venture can require significant judgment. In accordance with ASC 323-10, "Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures - Overall," we assess our investments in unconsolidated joint ventures for recoverability, and if it is determined that a loss in value of the investment below its carrying amount is other than temporary, we write down the investment to its fair value. We evaluate our equity investments for impairment based on the joint venture's projected cash flows. This process requires significant management judgment and estimates. There were no write-downs in fiscal 2021 or 2020. During fiscal 2019, we wrote down certain unconsolidated joint venture investments by $0.9 million.

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Deferred Bond Issuance Costs - Costs associated with borrowings under our credit facilities and term loans and the issuance of senior secured and senior notes are capitalized and amortized over the term of each note's issuance. The capitalized costs are recorded as a contra liability within our debt balances, except for the revolving credit facility costs, which are recorded as a prepaid asset.

Debt Issued At a Discount/Premium - Debt issued at a discount or premium to the face amount is amortized up or down, as applicable, to its face amount utilizing the effective interest method over the term of the note and recorded as a component of interest on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

Advertising Costs - Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. During the years ended October 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, advertising costs expensed totaled $9.8 million, $12.9 million and $17.1 million, respectively.

Deferred Income Taxes - Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences between amounts recorded for financial reporting and for income tax purposes. If the combination of future years' income (or loss) combined with the reversal of the timing differences results in a loss, such losses can be carried forward to future years to recover the deferred tax assets. In accordance with ASC 740-10, "Income Taxes - Overall," we evaluate our deferred tax assets quarterly to determine if valuation allowances are required. ASC 740-10 requires that companies assess whether valuation allowances should be established based on the consideration of all available evidence using a "more-likely-than-not" standard.

In evaluating the exposures associated with our various tax filing positions, we recognize tax liabilities in accordance with ASC 740-10, for more likely than not exposures. We re-evaluate the exposures associated with our tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors such as changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, new audit activity by taxing authorities, and effectively settled issues. Determining whether an uncertain tax position is effectively settled requires judgment. Such a change in recognition or measurement would result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. A number of years may elapse before a particular matter for which we have established a liability is audited and fully resolved or clarified. We adjust our liability for unrecognized tax benefits and income tax provision in the period in which an uncertain tax position is effectively settled, or the statute of limitations expires for the relevant taxing authority to examine the tax position or when more information becomes available. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a liability that is materially different from our current estimate. Any such changes will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined.

Prepaid Expenses - Prepaid expenses which relate to specific housing communities (model setup, architectural fees, homeowner warranty program fees, etc.) are amortized to cost of sales as the applicable inventories are sold. All other prepaid expenses are amortized over a specific time period or as used and charged to overhead expense.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts - We regularly review our receivable balances, which are included in Receivables, deposits and notes on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, for collectability and record an allowance against a receivable when it is deemed that collectability is uncertain. These receivables include receivables from our insurance carriers, receivables from municipalities related to the development of utilities or other infrastructure, and other miscellaneous receivables. The balance for allowance for doubtful accounts was $10.5 million and $12.0 million at October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which primarily related to allowances for receivables from municipalities and an allowance for a receivable for a prior year land sale. During fiscal 2021 and 2020, we recorded $1.5 million and $0.2 million, respectively, in recoveries. There were no write-offs in fiscal 2021 and 2020.

Stock Options - We account for our stock options under ASC 718-10, "Compensation - Stock Compensation - Overall," which requires the fair-value based method of accounting for stock awards granted to employees and measures and records the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award.

Compensation cost arising from nonvested stock granted to employees and from nonemployee stock awards is based on the fair value of the awards at the grant date recognized as expense using the straight-line method over the vesting period.

Per Share Calculations - Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) (the "numerator") by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding, adjusted for nonvested shares of restricted stock (the "denominator") for the period. Computing diluted earnings per share is similar to computing basic earnings per share, except that the denominator is increased to include the dilutive effects of options and nonvested shares of restricted stock. Any options that have an exercise price greater than the average market price are considered to be anti-dilutive and are excluded from the diluted earnings per share calculation.

All outstanding nonvested shares that contain nonforfeitable rights to dividends or dividend equivalents that participate in undistributed earnings with common stock are considered participating securities and are included in computing earnings per share pursuant to the two-class method. The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that determines earnings per share for each class of common stock and participating securities according to dividends or dividend equivalents and participation rights in undistributed earnings in periods where we have net income. The Company's restricted common stock ("nonvested shares") are considered participating securities.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, "Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting" ("ASU 2020-04"). ASU 2020-04 provides companies with optional guidance to ease the potential accounting burden associated with reference rate reform on financial reporting. This guidance was effective for the Company beginning on March 12, 2020, and we may elect to apply the amendments prospectively from now through December 31, 2022. The Company has not yet adopted this guidance and is currently evaluating the potential impact of adoption on our Consolidated Financial Statements.

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4.

Leases

We lease certain office space for use in our operations. We assess each of these contracts to determine whether the arrangement contains a lease as defined by ASC 842 "Leases" ("ASC 842"). In order to meet the definition of a lease under ASC 842, the contractual arrangement must convey to us the right to control the use of an identifiable asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. We recognize lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term and combine lease and non-lease components for all leases. Our office lease terms are generally from threeto fiveyears and generally contain renewal options. In accordance with ASC 842, our lease terms include those renewals only to the extent that they are reasonably certain to be exercised. The exercise of these lease renewal options is generally at our discretion. In accordance with ASC 842, the lease liability is equal to the present value of the remaining lease payments while the ROU asset is based on the lease liability, subject to adjustment, such as for lease incentives. Our leases do not provide a readily determinable implicit interest rate and therefore, we must estimate our incremental borrowing rate. In determining the incremental borrowing rate, we consider the lease period and our collateralized borrowing rates.

Our lease population at October 31,2021 is comprised of operating leases where we are the lessee and these leases are primarily real estate for office space for our corporate office, division offices and design centers. As allowed by ASC 842, we adopted an accounting policy election to not record leases with lease terms of twelve months or less on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Lease cost included in our Consolidated Statements of Operations in Selling, general and administrative expenses and payments on our lease liabilities are presented in the table below. Our short-term lease costs and sublease income are de minimis.

Year Ended October 31,

Year Ended October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

Operating lease cost

$ 10,521 $ 10,507

Cash payments on lease liabilities

$ 9,598 $ 9,257

ROU assets are classified within Prepaids and other assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, while lease liabilities are classified within Accounts payable and other liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company recorded a net increase to both its ROU assets and lease liabilities of $6.8 million as a result of new leases and lease renewals that commenced during the year ended October 31, 2021. The following table contains additional information about our leases:

(In thousands)

At October 31, 2021

At October 31, 2020

ROU assets

$ 17,844 $ 20,016

Lease liabilities

$ 18,952 $ 21,049

Weighted-average remaining lease term (in years)

3.1 3.5

Weighted-average discount rate (incremental borrowing rate)

9.4 % 9.6 %

Maturities of our operating lease liabilities as of October 31, 2021 are as follows:

Year ending October 31,

(in thousands)

2022

$ 9,000

2023

5,942

2024

3,201

2025

2,435

2026 and Thereafter

1,403

Total payments

21,981

Less: imputed interest

(3,029 )

Present value of lease liabilities

$ 18,952
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5. Property, Plant and Equipment

Homebuilding property, plant, and equipment consists of land, land improvements, buildings, building improvements, furniture and equipment used to conduct day-to-day business and are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation.

Property, plant, and equipment balances as of October 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows:

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

Land and land improvements

$ 1,639 $ 1,639

Buildings

9,497 9,497

Building improvements

15,478 13,281

Furniture

4,214 4,363

Equipment, including capitalized software

36,467

35,763

Total

67,295 64,543

Less accumulated depreciation

48,559 46,358

Total

$ 18,736 $ 18,185

6. Restricted Cash and Deposits

Homebuilding - Restricted cash and cash equivalents on the Consolidated Balance Sheets totaled $16.1 million and $14.7 million as of October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which primarily consists of cash collateralizing our letter of credit agreements and facilities as discussed in Note 9.

Financial services restricted cash and cash equivalents, which are included in Financial services other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, totaled $43.5 million and $27.4 million as of October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Included in these balances were (1) financial services customers' deposits of $40.7 million at October 31, 2021 and $25.4 million as of October 31, 2020, which are subject to restrictions on our use, and (2) $2.8 million at October 31, 2021 and $2.0 million as of October 31, 2020 of restricted cash under the terms of our mortgage warehouse lines of credit.

Total Homebuilding Customers' deposits are shown as a liability on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. These liabilities are significantly more than the applicable periods' restricted cash balances because in some states the deposits are not restricted from use and, in other states, we are able to release the majority of these customer deposits to cash by pledging letters of credit and surety bonds.

7. Mortgage Loans Held for Sale

Our wholly owned mortgage banking subsidiary, K. Hovnanian American Mortgage, LLC ("K. Hovnanian Mortgage") originates mortgage loans, primarily from the sale of our homes. Such mortgage loans are sold in the secondary mortgage market within a short period of time of origination. Mortgage loans held for sale consist primarily of single-family residential loans collateralized by the underlying property. We have elected the fair value option to record loans held for sale and therefore these loans are recorded at fair value with the changes in the value recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations in "Revenues: Financial services." We currently use forward sales of mortgage-backed securities ("MBS"), interest rate commitments from borrowers and mandatory and/or best efforts forward commitments to sell loans to third-party purchasers to protect us from interest rate fluctuations. These short-term instruments, which do not require any payments to be made to the counterparty or purchaser in connection with the execution of the commitments, are recorded at fair value. Gains and losses on changes in the fair value are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations in "Revenues: Financial services."

At October 31, 2021 and 2020, $136.5 million and $87.9 million, respectively, of mortgages held for sale were pledged against our mortgage warehouse lines of credit (see Note 8). We may incur losses with respect to mortgages that were previously sold that are delinquent and which had underwriting defects, but only to the extent the losses are not covered by mortgage insurance or resale value of the home. The reserves for these estimated losses are included in the "Financial services" balances on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, we had reserves specifically for 14 and 15 identified mortgage loans, respectively, as well as reserves for an estimate for future losses on mortgages sold but not yet identified to us.

The activity in our loan origination reserves in fiscal 2021 and 2020 was as follows:

Year Ended

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

Loan origination reserves, beginning of period

$ 1,458 $ 1,268

Provisions for losses during the period

228 196

Adjustments to pre-existing provisions for losses from changes in estimates

(54 ) (6 )

Payments/settlements

- -

Loan origination reserves, end of period

$ 1,632 $ 1,458
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8. Mortgages

Nonrecourse. We have nonrecourse mortgage loans for certain communities totaling $125.1 million and $135.1 million (net of debt issuance costs) at October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which are secured by the related real property, including any improvements, with an aggregate book value of $448.5 million and $368.1 million, respectively. The weighted-average interest rate on these obligations was 4.4% and 6.4% at October 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and the mortgage loan payments on each community primarily correspond to home deliveries.

Mortgage Loans. K. Hovnanian Mortgage originates mortgage loans primarily from the sale of our homes. Such mortgage loans and related servicing rights are sold in the secondary mortgage market within a short period of time. In certain instances, we retain the servicing rights for a small amount of loans. K. Hovnanian Mortgage finances the origination of mortgage loans through various master repurchase agreements, which are recorded in financial services liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Our secured Master Repurchase Agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. ("Chase Master Repurchase Agreement") is a short-term borrowing facility that provides up to $50.0 million through its maturity on June 30, 2022. The loan is secured by the mortgages held for sale and is repaid when we sell the underlying mortgage loans to permanent investors. Interest is payable monthly on outstanding advances at an adjusted LIBOR rate, which was 0.875% at October 31, 2021, plus the applicable margin of 2.5%. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate principal amount of all borrowings outstanding under the Chase Master Repurchase Agreement was $45.7 million and $23.5 million, respectively.

K. Hovnanian Mortgage has another secured Master Repurchase Agreement with Customers Bank ("Customers Master Repurchase Agreement") which is a short-term borrowing facility that provides up to $50.0 million through its maturity on March 9, 2022. The loan is secured by the mortgages held for sale and is repaid when we sell the underlying mortgage loans to permanent investors. Interest is payable daily or as loans are sold to permanent investors on outstanding advances at the current LIBOR rate, plus the applicable margin ranging from 2.125% to 4.75% based on the type of loan and the number of days outstanding on the warehouse line. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate principal amount of all borrowings outstanding under the Customers Master Repurchase Agreement was $40.5 million and $31.1 million, respectively.

K. Hovnanian Mortgage also has a secured Master Repurchase Agreement with Comerica Bank ("Comerica Master Repurchase Agreement") which is a short-term borrowing facility through its maturity on June 28, 2022. The Comerica Master Repurchase Agreement provides up to $60.0 million on the 15th day of the last month of the Company's fiscal quarters, and reverts back to up to $50.0 million 30 days thereafter. The loan is secured by the mortgages held for sale and is repaid when we sell the underlying mortgage loans to permanent investors. Interest is payable monthly at the current LIBOR rate, subject to a floor of 0.25%, plus the applicable margin of 1.875% or 3.25% based upon the type of loan. As of October 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate principal amount of all borrowings outstanding under the Comerica Master Repurchase Agreement was $48.7 million and $32.6 million, respectively.

The Chase Master Repurchase Agreement, Customers Master Repurchase Agreement and Comerica Master Repurchase Agreement (together, the "Master Repurchase Agreements") require K. Hovnanian Mortgage to satisfy and maintain specified financial ratios and other financial condition tests. Because of the extremely short period of time mortgages are held by K. Hovnanian Mortgage before the mortgages are sold to investors (generally a period of a few weeks), the immateriality to us on a consolidated basis of the size of the Master Repurchase Agreements, the levels required by these financial covenants, our ability based on our immediately available resources to contribute sufficient capital to cure any default, were such conditions to occur, and our right to cure any conditions of default based on the terms of the applicable agreement, we do not consider any of these covenants to be substantive or material. As of October 31, 2021, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants under the Master Repurchase Agreements.

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9. Senior Notes and Credit Facilities

Senior notes and credit facilities balances as of October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, were as follows:

October 31,

October 31,

(In thousands)

2021 2020

Senior Secured Notes:

10.0% Senior Secured Notes due July 15, 2022

$ - $ 111,214

10.5% Senior Secured Notes due July 15, 2024

- 69,683

10.0% Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Notes due November 15, 2025

158,502 158,502

7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due February 15, 2026

350,000 350,000

10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due February 15, 2026

282,322 282,322

11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due February 15, 2026

162,269 162,269

Total Senior Secured Notes

$ 953,093 $ 1,133,990

Senior Notes:

8.0% Senior Notes due November 1, 2027(1)

$ - $ -

13.5% Senior Notes due February 1, 2026

90,590 90,590

5.0% Senior Notes due February 1, 2040

90,120 90,120

Total Senior Notes

$ 180,710 $ 180,710

Senior Unsecured Term Loan Credit Facility due February 1, 2027

$ 39,551 $ 39,551

Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Term Loan Credit Facility due January 31, 2028

$ 81,498 $ 81,498

Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility (2)

$ - $ -

Subtotal notes payable

$ 1,254,852 $ 1,435,749

Net (discounts) premiums

$ 10,769 $ 17,521

Net debt issuance costs

$ (17,248 ) $ (22,160 )

Total notes payable, net of discounts, premiums and debt issuance costs

$ 1,248,373 $ 1,431,110

(1) $26.0 million of 8.0% Senior Notes due 2027 (the "8.0%2027 Notes") are owned by a wholly-owned consolidated subsidiary of HEI. Therefore, in accordance with GAAP, such notes are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets of HEI. On November 1, 2019, the maturity of the 8.0%2027 Notes was extended to November 1, 2027.

(2) At October 31, 2021, provides for up to $125.0 million in aggregate amount of senior secured first lien revolving loans. Availability thereunder will terminate on December 28, 2022.

As of October 31, 2021, future maturities of our borrowings were as follows (in thousands):

Fiscal Year Ended October 31, (1)

2022

$ -

2023

-

2024

-

2025

-

2026

1,043,683

Thereafter

211,169

Total

$ 1,254,852

(1) Does not include our $125.0 million Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility under which there were no borrowings outstanding as of October 31, 2021.

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General

Except for K. Hovnanian, the issuer of the notes and borrower under the Credit Facilities (as defined below), our home mortgage subsidiaries, certain of our title insurance subsidiaries, joint ventures and subsidiaries holding interests in our joint ventures, we and each of our subsidiaries are guarantors of the Credit Facilities, the senior secured notes and senior notes outstanding (except for the 8.0%2027 Notes which are not guaranteed by K. Hovnanian at Sunrise Trail III, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company) at October 31, 2021 (collectively, the "Notes Guarantors").

The credit agreements governing the Credit Facilities and the indentures governing the senior secured and senior notes (together, the "Debt Instruments") outstanding at October 31, 2021 do not contain any financial maintenance covenants, but do contain restrictive covenants that limit, among other things, the ability of HEI and certain of its subsidiaries, including K. Hovnanian, to incur additional indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness, certain permitted indebtedness and refinancing indebtedness), pay dividends and make distributions on common and preferred stock, repay/repurchase certain indebtedness prior to its respective stated maturity, repurchase (including through exchanges) common and preferred stock, make other restricted payments (including investments), sell certain assets (including in certain land banking transactions), incur liens, consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of their assets and enter into certain transactions with affiliates. The Debt Instruments also contain customary events of default which would permit the lenders or holders thereof to exercise remedies with respect to the collateral (as applicable), declare the loans made under the Unsecured Term Loan Facility (defined below) (the "Unsecured Term Loans"), loans made under the Secured Term Loan Facility (defined below) (the "Secured Term Loans") and loans made under the Secured Credit Agreement (as defined below) (the "Secured Revolving Loans") or notes to be immediately due and payable if not cured within applicable grace periods, including the failure to make timely payments on the Unsecured Term Loans, Secured Term Loans, Secured Revolving Loans or notes or other material indebtedness, cross default to other material indebtedness, the failure to comply with agreements and covenants and specified events of bankruptcy and insolvency, with respect to the Unsecured Term Loans, Secured Term Loans and Secured Revolving Loans, material inaccuracy of representations and warranties and with respect to the Unsecured Term Loans, Secured Term Loans and Secured Revolving Loans, a change of control, and, with respect to the Secured Term Loans, Secured Revolving Loans and senior secured notes, the failure of the documents granting security for the obligations under the secured Debt Instruments to be in full force and effect, and the failure of the liens on any material portion of the collateral securing the obligations under the secured Debt Instruments to be valid and perfected. As of October 31, 2021, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants of the Debt Instruments.

If our consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio is less than 2.0 to 1.0, as defined in the applicable Debt Instrument, we are restricted from making certain payments, including dividends (in even such case, our secured debt leverage ratio must also be less than 4.0 to 1.0), and from incurring indebtedness other than certain permitted indebtedness, refinancing indebtedness and nonrecourse indebtedness. As of October 31, 2021, as a result of our improved operating results, our fixed coverage ratio is above 2.0 to 1.0 and our secured debt leverage ratio is below 4.0 to 1.0, therefore we are no longer restricted from paying dividends. As such, on December 3, 2021 our Board of Directors authorized a dividend payment of $2.7 million to preferred shareholders of record on January 1, 2022 and which will be paid on January 15, 2022.

Under the terms of our Debt Instruments, we have the right to make certain redemptions and prepayments and, depending on market conditions, our strategic priorities and covenant restrictions, may do so from time to time. We also continue to actively analyze and evaluate our capital structure and explore transactions to simplify our capital structure and to strengthen our balance sheet, including those that reduce leverage, interest rates and/or extend maturities, and will seek to do so with the right opportunity. We may also continue to make debt purchases and/or exchanges for debt or equity from time to time through tender offers, exchange offers, redemptions, open market purchases, private transactions, or otherwise, or seek to raise additional debt or equity capital, depending on market conditions and covenant restrictions.

Fiscal 2021

On July 30, 2021, K. Hovnanian redeemed in full all of the $111.2 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2022 (the "10.0%2022 Notes"). The aggregate purchase price for this redemption was $111.7 million, which included accrued and unpaid interest and which was funded with cash on hand. This redemption resulted in a loss on extinguishment of debt of $0.3 million for the year ended October 31, 2021, net of the write-off of unamortized financing costs and fees. The loss from the redemption is included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as "Loss on extinguishment of debt".

On August 2, 2021, K. Hovnanian redeemed in full all of the $69.7 million aggregate principal amount of 10.5% Senior Secured Notes due 2024 (the "10.5%2024 Notes"). The aggregate purchase price for this redemption was $71.9 million, which included accrued and unpaid interest and which was funded with cash on hand. This redemption resulted in a loss on extinguishment of debt of $3.4 million for the year ended October 31, 2021, net of the write-off of unamortized discounts, financing costs and fees. The loss from the redemption is included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as "Loss on extinguishment of debt".

Fiscal 2020

On December 10, 2019, K. Hovnanian consummated an exchange offer (the "1.75 Lien Exchange Offer") pursuant to which it issued $158.5 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% 1.75 Lien Notes due 2025 (the "1.75 Lien Notes") in exchange for $23.2 million in aggregate principal amount of its outstanding 10.0% 2022 Notes and $141.7 million in aggregate principal amount of its outstanding 10.5% 2024 Notes (together with the 10.0% 2022 Notes, the "Second Lien Notes"). K. Hovnanian also exchanged $163.0 million in aggregate principal amount of its Unsecured Term Loans for $81.5 million in aggregate principal amount of Secured Term Loans made under a new Senior Secured 1.75 Lien Term Loan Credit Facility due January 31, 2028 (the "Secured Term Loan Facility"). There was no cash consideration in these exchanges. These secured notes and term loan exchanges were accounted for in accordance with ASC 470-60, resulting in a carrying value of $164.9 million and $148.8 million, respectively, for the $158.5 million of 1.75 Lien Notes and $81.5 million of Secured Term Loans, respectively, and a net gain on extinguishment of debt of $9.2 million, which is included in "Gain on extinguishment of debt" on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. The effect of this gain on a per share basis, assuming dilution, for the year ended October 31, 2020 was $1.40, excluding the impact of taxes, as our deferred tax assets were fully reserved by a valuation allowance.

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The 1.75 Lien Notes were issued under an Indenture, dated as of December 10, 2019, among HEI, K. Hovnanian, the guarantors party thereto and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee and collateral agent. The 1.75 Lien Notes are guaranteed by HEI and the Notes Guarantors and are secured by substantially all of the assets owned by K. Hovnanian and the Notes Guarantors, subject to permitted liens and certain exceptions. Interest on the 1.75 Lien Notes is payable semi-annually on May 15 and November 15 of each year, to holders of record at the close of business on May 1 or November 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding each such interest payment date. The 1.75 Lien Notes have a maturity of November 15, 2025.

The 1.75 Lien Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at K. Hovnanian's option at any time prior to November 15, 2021 at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of their principal amount plus an applicable "Make-Whole Amount". At any time and from time to time on or after November 15, 2021 and prior to November 15, 2022, K. Hovnanian may redeem some or all of the 1.75 Lien Notes at a redemption price equal to 105.00% of their principal amount, at any time and from time to time after November 15, 2022 and prior to November 15, 2023, K. Hovnanian may redeem some or all of the 1.75 Lien Notes at a redemption price equal to 102.50% of their principal amount and at any time and from time to time after November 15, 2023, K. Hovnanian may redeem some or all of the 1.75 Lien Notes at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of their principal amount. In addition, K. Hovnanian may also redeem up to 35.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the 1.75 Lien Notes prior to November 15, 2021 with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at 110.00% of principal.

The Secured Term Loans and the guarantees thereof are secured on a pari passu basis with the 1.75 Lien Notes by the same assets that secure the 1.75 Lien Notes, subject to permitted liens and certain exceptions. The Secured Term Loans bear interest at a rate equal to 10.0% per annum and will mature on January 31, 2028, with interest payable in arrears on the last business day of each fiscal quarter. The Secured Term Loans may be voluntarily prepaid in whole or in part at K. Hovnanian's option at any time prior to November 15, 2021 at a prepayment price equal to 100.0% of their principal amount plus any applicable "Make-Whole Amount". At any time and from time to time on or after November 15, 2021 and prior to November 15, 2022, K. Hovnanian may voluntarily prepay some or all of the Secured Term Loans at a prepayment price equal to 105.00% of their principal amount, at any time and from time to time after November 15, 2022 and prior to November 15, 2023, K. Hovnanian may voluntarily prepay some or all of the Secured Term Loans at a prepayment price equal to 102.50% of their principal amount and at any time and from time to time after November 15, 2023, K. Hovnanian may voluntarily prepay some or all of the Secured Term Loans at a prepayment price equal to 100.0% of their principal amount.

On March 25, 2020, K. Hovnanian consummated a private exchange (the "Exchange") pursuant to which it issued $59.1 million aggregate principal amount of additional 1.5 Lien Notes (defined below) (the "Additional 1.5 Lien Notes") in exchange for $59.1 million aggregate principal amount of 10.0% 2022 Notes held by certain participating bondholders (the "Exchange Holders") pursuant to an Exchange Agreement, dated March 25, 2020 (the "Exchange Agreement"), among the K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors, the Exchanging Holders and certain holders of the Initial 1.5 Lien Notes (defined below) (the "Consenting Holders"). In connection therewith, the Consenting Holders provided their consents (the "Consents") under the Indenture under which the 1.5 Lien Notes were issued to permit the issuance of the Additional 1.5 Lien Notes.

The Additional 1.5 Lien Notes were issued as additional notes of the same series as the $103.1 million aggregate principal amount of K. Hovnanian's 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026 issued on October 31, 2019 (the "Initial 1.5 Lien Notes" and, together with the Additional 1.5 Lien Notes, the "1.5 Lien Notes"). In connection with the issuance of the Additional 1.5 Lien Notes in the Exchange, K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (the "Trustee") and collateral agent (the "Collateral Agent"), entered into the Fourth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of March 25, 2020 (the "Supplemental Indenture"), to the Indenture, dated as of October 31, 2019 (as amended and supplemented prior to the Supplemental Indenture, the "Indenture"), among the K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors, the Trustee and the Collateral Agent. The Supplemental Indenture also amends the Indenture in accordance with the Consents to permit K. Hovnanian and the Notes Guarantors to secure up to $162.3 million of 1.5 Lien Obligations (as defined in the Indenture). As of March 25, 2020, after giving effect to the issuance of the Additional 1.5 Lien Notes, $162.3 million aggregate principal amount of 1.5 Lien Obligations, which consist of the 1.5 Lien Notes, were outstanding. For a discussion of the 1.5 Lien Notes see "-Secured Obligations" below.

During the year ended October 31, 2020, the Company repurchased in open market transactions $25.5 million aggregate principal amount of the 10.0% 2022 Notes. The aggregate purchase price for these repurchases was $21.4 million, which included accrued and unpaid interest. These repurchases resulted in a gain on extinguishment of debt of $4.1 million for the year ended October 31, 2020, net of the write-off of unamortized financing costs and fees. The gains from the repurchases are included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations as "Gain on extinguishment of debt".

Fiscal 2019

On January 15, 2019, K. Hovnanian issued $25.0 million in aggregate principal amount of additional 10.5% 2024 Notes to GSO Capital Partners LP ("GSO") or one or more funds managed, advised or sub-advised by GSO (collectively, the "GSO Entities") at a discount for a purchase price of $21.3 million in cash. The additional 10.5%2024 Notes were issued as additional notes of the same series as the 10.5%2024 Notes.

On October 31, 2019, K. Hovnanian, HEI, the Notes Guarantors, Wilmington Trust, National Association, as administrative agent, and affiliates of certain investment managers (the "Investors"), as lenders, entered into a credit agreement (the "Secured Credit Agreement" and, together with the Unsecured Term Loan Facility and the Secured Term Loan Facility, the "Credit Facilities") providing for up to $125.0 million in aggregate amount of Secured Revolving Loans to be used for general corporate purposes, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein. Secured Revolving Loans are to be borrowed by K. Hovnanian and guaranteed by the Notes Guarantors. Availability under the Secured Credit Agreement will terminate on December 28, 2022. The Secured Revolving Loans bear interest at a rate per annum equal to 7.75%,and interest is payable in arrears, on the last business day of each fiscal quarter. In connection with the entering into of the Secured Credit Agreement, K. Hovnanian terminated the 2018 Secured Credit Facility (as defined under "- Fiscal 2018").

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On October 31, 2019, K. Hovnanian completed private placements of senior secured notes as follows: (i) K. Hovnanian issued an aggregate of $350.0 million of 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026 (the "1.125 Lien Notes") in part pursuant to a Note Purchase Agreement, dated October 31, 2019, among K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors and certain Investors as purchasers thereof (the "1.125 Lien Notes Purchase Agreement") and in part pursuant to the Exchange Agreement (as defined below), with the proceeds from the sale of 1.125 Lien Notes under the 1.125 Lien Notes Purchase Agreement used to fund the cash payments to certain Exchanging Holders (as defined below) under the Exchange Agreement; and (ii) K. Hovnanian issued an aggregate of $282.3 million of 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026 (the "1.25 Lien Notes"), pursuant to a Note Purchase Agreement (the "1.25 Lien Notes Purchase Agreement"), dated October 31, 2019, among K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors and certain Investors as purchasers thereof (the "1.25 Lien Notes Purchasers"), the proceeds of which were used to fund the Satisfaction and Discharge (as defined below).

In addition, on October 31, 2019, K. Hovnanian completed private exchanges of (i) approximately $221.0 million aggregate principal amount of its 10.0% 2022 Notes and approximately $114.0 million aggregate principal amount of its 10.5%2024 Notes held by certain participating bondholders (the "Exchanging Holders") for a portion of the $350.0 million aggregate principal amount of 1.125 Lien Notes described above and/or cash, and (ii) approximately $99.6 million aggregate principal amount of its 10.5%2024 Notes held by certain of the Exchanging Holders for approximately $103.1 million aggregate principal amount of 1.5 Lien Notes (the 1.5 Lien Notes together with the 1.125 Lien Notes and the 1.25 Lien Notes, the "New Secured Notes"), pursuant to an Exchange Agreement, dated October 30, 2019 (the "Exchange Agreement"), among K. Hovnanian, the Notes Guarantors and the Exchanging Holders.

On October 31, 2019, K. Hovnanian issued notices of redemption for all of its outstanding 9.50% Senior Secured Notes due 2020 (the "9.50% Notes"), 2.000% Senior Secured Notes due 2021 (the "2.000% Notes") and 5.000% Senior Secured Notes due 2021 (the "5.000% Notes") and deposited with Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee under the indenture (the "9.50% Notes Indenture") governing the 9.50% Notes and as trustee under the indenture (the "5.000%/2.000% Notes Indenture") governing the 5.000% Notes and the 2.000% Notes sufficient funds to satisfy and discharge (collectively, the "Satisfaction and Discharge") (i) the 9.50% Indenture and to fund the redemption of all outstanding 9.50% Notes and to pay accrued and unpaid interest on the redeemed notes to, but not including, the November 10, 2019 redemption date and (ii) the 5.000%/2.000% Indenture and to fund the redemption of all outstanding 5.000% Notes and 2.000% Notes and to pay accrued and unpaid interest on the redeemed notes to, but not including, the November 30, 2019 redemption date. Proceeds from the issuance of the 1.25 Lien Notes together with cash on hand were used to fund the Satisfaction and Discharge. Upon the Satisfaction and Discharge of the 9.50% Notes Indenture, all of the collateral securing the 9.50% Notes was released and the restrictive covenants and events of default contained therein ceased to have effect and upon the Satisfaction and Discharge of the 5.000%/2.000% Notes Indenture, all of the collateral securing the 5.000% Notes and the 2.000% Notes was released and the restrictive covenants and events of default contained therein ceased to have effect as to both such series of Notes.

HEI and K. Hovnanian obtained the consent of certain lenders/holders under its existing debt instruments to amend such debt instruments in connection with the issuance of the New Secured Notes and the execution of the indentures governing the New Secured Notes and the Secured Credit Agreement. HEI, K. Hovnanian and the guarantors also amended such debt instruments to add certain subsidiaries as guarantors thereunder and, in the case of the Second Lien Notes, to add such new guarantors as pledgors and grantors of their assets (subject to permitted liens and certain exceptions) to secure such Second Lien Notes.

The transactions that were consummated on October 31, 2019, as described, are collectively referred to herein as the "2019 Transactions." The 2019 Transactions resulted in a loss of extinguishment of debt of $42.4 million for the year ended October 31, 2019, which is included as "Loss on Extinguishment of Debt" on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.

Secured Obligations

On October 31, 2019, K. Hovnanian, HEI, the Notes Guarantors, Wilmington Trust, National Association, as administrative agent, and affiliates of certain investment managers (the "Investors"), as lenders, entered into a credit agreement (the "Secured Credit Agreement" and, together with the Unsecured Term Loan Facility (defined below) and the Secured Term Loan Facility, the "Credit Facilities") providing for up to $125.0 million in aggregate amount of Secured Revolving Loans to be used for general corporate purposes, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein. Secured Revolving Loans are to be borrowed by K. Hovnanian and guaranteed by the Notes Guarantors. Availability under the Secured Credit Agreement will terminate on December 28, 2022. The Secured Revolving Loans bear interest at a rate per annum equal to 7.75%, and interest is payable in arrears, on the last business day of each fiscal quarter.

The 7.75% Senior Secured 1.125 Lien Notes due 2026 (the "1.125 Lien Notes") have a maturity of February 15, 2026 and bear interest at a rate of 7.75% per annum payable semi-annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year, to holders of record at the close of business on February 1 and August 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding such interest payment dates. The 1.125 Lien Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at our option at any time prior to February 15, 2022 at 100.0% of their principal amount plus an applicable "Make-Whole Amount." In addition, up to 35% of the original aggregate principal amount of the 1.125 Lien Notes may be redeemed with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at 107.75% of principal at any time prior to February 15, 2022. K. Hovnanian may also redeem some or all of the 1.125 Lien Notes at 103.875% of principal commencing February 15, 2022, at 101.937% of principal commencing February 15, 2023 and at 100.0% of principal commencing February 15, 2024.

The 10.5% Senior Secured 1.25 Lien Notes due 2026 (the "1.25 Lien Notes") have a maturity of February 15, 2026 and bear interest at a rate of 10.5% per annum payable semi-annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year to holders of record at the close of business on February 1 and August 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding such interest payment dates. The 1.25 Lien Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at our option at any time prior to February 15, 2022 at 100.0% of their principal amount plus an applicable "Make-Whole Amount." In addition, up to 35% of the original aggregate principal amount of the 1.25 Lien Notes may be redeemed with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at 110.5% of principal at any time prior to February 15, 2022. K. Hovnanian may also redeem some or all of the 1.25 Lien Notes at 105.25% of principal commencing February 15, 2022, at 102.625% of principal commencing February 15, 2023 and at 100.0% of principal commencing February 15, 2024.

The 11.25% Senior Secured 1.5 Lien Notes due 2026 (the "1.5 Lien Notes") have a maturity of February 15, 2026 and bear interest at a rate of 11.25% per annum payable semi-annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year to holders of record at the close of business on February 1 and August 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding such interest payment dates. The 1.5 Lien Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at our option at any time prior to February 15, 2026 at 100.0% of their principal amount.

See "-Fiscal 2020"for a discussion of the 1.75 Lien Notes and the Secured Term Loans.

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Each series of secured notes and the guarantees thereof, the Secured Term Loans and the guarantees thereof and the Secured Credit Agreement and the guarantees thereof are secured by the same assets. Among the secured debt, the liens securing the Secured Credit Agreement are senior to the liens securing all of K. Hovnanian's other secured notes and the Secured Term Loan. The liens securing the 1.125 Lien Notes are senior to the liens securing the 1.25 Lien Notes, 1.5 Lien Notes, the 1.75 Lien Notes, the Secured Term Loans, the Second Lien Notes and any other future secured obligations that are junior in priority with respect to the assets securing the 1.125 Lien Notes, the liens securing the 1.25 Lien Notes are senior to the liens securing the 1.5 Lien Notes, the 1.75 Lien Notes, the Secured Term Loans and any other future secured obligations that are junior in priority with respect to the assets securing the 1.25 Lien Notes, the liens securing the 1.5 Lien Notes are senior to the liens securing the 1.75 Lien Notes, the Secured Term Loans and any other future secured obligations that are junior in priority with respect to the assets securing the 1.5 Lien Notes, the liens securing the 1.75 Lien Notes and the Secured Term Loans (which are secured on a pari passu basis with each other) are senior to any other future secured obligations that are junior in priority with respect to the assets securing the 1.75 Lien Notes and the Secured Term Loans, in each case, with respect to the assets securing such debt.

As of October 31, 2021, the collateral securing the Secured Credit Agreement, the Secured Term Loan Facility and the secured notes included (1) $249.9 million of cash and cash equivalents, which included $9.9 million of restricted cash collateralizing certain letters of credit (subsequent to such date, fluctuations as a result of cash uses include general business operations and real estate and other investments along with cash inflow primarily from deliveries); (2) $425.6 million aggregate book value of real property, which does not include the impact of inventory investments, home deliveries or impairments thereafter and which may differ from the value if it were appraised; and (3) equity interests in joint venture holding companies with an aggregate book value of $104.7 million.

Unsecured Obligations

The 13.5% Senior Notes due 2026 (the "13.5%2026 Notes") bear interest at 13.5% per annum and mature on February 1, 2026. Interest on the 13.5%2026 Notes is payable semi-annually on February 1 and August 1 of each year to holders of record at the close of business on January 15 or July 15, as the case may be, immediately preceding each such interest payment date. The 13.5%2026 Notes are redeemable in whole or in part at K. Hovnanian's option at any time prior to February 1, 2025 at a redemption price equal to 100% of their principal amount plus an applicable "Make Whole Amount". At any time and from time to time on or after February 1, 2025, K. Hovnanian may also redeem some or all of the 13.5%2026 Notes at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of their principal amount.

The 5.0% Senior Notes due 2040 (the "5.0%2040 Notes") bear interest at 5.0% per annum and mature on February 1, 2040. Interest on the 5.0%2040 Notes is payable semi-annually on February 1 and August 1 of each year to holders of record at the close of business on January 15 or July 15, as the case may be, immediately preceding each such interest payment date. At any time and from time to time after February 1, 2021, K. Hovnanian may redeem some or all of the 2040 Notes at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of their principal amount.

The Unsecured Term Loans bear interest at a rate equal to 5.0% per annum and interest is payable in arrears, on the last business day of each fiscal quarter. The Unsecured Term Loans will mature on February 1, 2027.

Other

We have certain stand-alone cash collateralized letter of credit agreements and facilities under which there was a total of $9.3 million and $11.3 million letters of credit outstanding at October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, respectively. These agreements and facilities require us to maintain specified amounts of cash as collateral in segregated accounts to support the letters of credit issued thereunder, which will affect the amount of cash we have available for other uses. At October 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, the amount of cash collateral in these segregated accounts was $9.9 million and $11.6 million, respectively, which is reflected in "Restricted cash and cash equivalents" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

10. Operating and Reporting Segments

HEI's operating segments are components of the Company's business for which discrete financial information is available and reviewed regularly by the chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, to evaluate performance and make operating decisions. Based on this criteria, each of the Company's communities qualifies as an operating segment, and therefore, it is impractical to provide segment disclosures for this many segments. As such, HEI has aggregated the homebuilding operating segments into six reportable segments.

HEI's homebuilding operating segments are aggregated into reportable segments based primarily upon geographic proximity, similar regulatory environments, land acquisition characteristics and similar methods used to construct and sell homes. HEI's reportable segments consist of the following sixhomebuilding segments and a financial services segment noted below.

Homebuilding:

(1)

Northeast (New Jersey and Pennsylvania)

(2)

Mid-Atlantic (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington D.C. and West Virginia)

(3)

Midwest (Illinois and Ohio)

(4)

Southeast (Florida, Georgia and South Carolina)

(5)

Southwest (Arizona and Texas)

(6)

West (California)

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Financial Services

Operations of the Homebuilding segments primarily include the sale and construction of single-family attached and detached homes, attached townhomes and condominiums, urban infill and active lifestyle homes in planned residential developments. In addition, from time to time, operations of the homebuilding segments include sales of land. Operations of the Financial Services segment include mortgage banking and title services provided to the homebuilding operations' customers. Our financial services subsidiaries do not typically retain or service mortgages that we originate but rather sell the mortgages and related servicing rights to investors.

Corporate and unallocated primarily represents operations at our headquarters in New Jersey. This includes our executive offices, information services, human resources, corporate accounting, training, treasury, process redesign, internal audit, construction services, and administration of insurance, quality and safety. It also includes interest income and interest expense resulting from interest incurred that cannot be capitalized in inventory in the Homebuilding segments, as well as the gains or losses on extinguishment of debt from any debt repurchases or exchanges.

Evaluation of segment performance is based primarily on operating earnings from continuing operations before provision for income taxes ("Income (loss) before income taxes"). Income (loss) before income taxes for the Homebuilding segments consist of revenues generated from the sales of homes and land, income (loss) from unconsolidated entities, management fees and other income, less the cost of homes and land sold, selling, general and administrative expenses and interest expense. Income (loss) before income taxes for the Financial Services segment consist of revenues generated from mortgage financing, title insurance and closing services, less the cost of such services and selling, general and administrative expenses incurred by the Financial Services segment.

Operational results of each segment are not necessarily indicative of the results that would have occurred had the segment been an independent stand-alone entity during the periods presented.

Financial information relating to HEI's segment operations was as follows:

Year Ended October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

2019

Revenues:

Northeast

$ 142,445 $ 192,069 $ 124,372

Mid-Atlantic

465,876 403,669 357,247

Midwest

262,770 225,718 204,461

Southeast

285,658 232,730 220,082

Southwest

903,178 744,197 629,344

West

641,219 472,889 425,516

Total homebuilding

2,701,146 2,271,272 1,961,022

Financial services

81,692 72,162 54,152

Corporate and unallocated

19 467 1,742

Total revenues

$ 2,782,857 $ 2,343,901 $ 2,016,916

Income (loss) before income taxes:

Northeast

$ 22,922 $ 30,371 $ 20,954

Mid-Atlantic

61,567 34,570 14,327

Midwest

18,407 (1,805 ) (649 )

Southeast

17,764 1,355 (10,060 )

Southwest

115,840 68,184 33,459

West

82,503 16,415 40,018

Total homebuilding

319,003 149,090 98,049

Financial services

37,563 32,102 17,627

Corporate and unallocated (1)

(166,705 ) (125,789 ) (155,344 )

Income (loss) before income taxes

$ 189,861 $ 55,403 $ (39,668 )

(1) Corporate and unallocated for the year ended October 31, 2021 included corporate general and administrative costs of $106.7 million, interest expense of $57.1 million (a component of Other interest on our Consolidated Statements of Operations), loss on extinguishment of debt of $3.7 million, and $0.8 million of other income and expenses. Corporate and unallocated for the year ended October 31, 2020 included corporate general and administrative costs of $80.5 million, interest expense of $61.9 million (a component of Other interest on our Consolidated Statements of Operations), gain on extinguishment of debt of $13.3 million, and $3.3 million of other income and expenses, along with the adjustment to our insurance reserves. Corporate and unallocated for the year ended October 31, 2019 included corporate general and administrative costs of $66.4 million, interest expense of $55.5 million (a component of Other interest on our Consolidated Statements of Operations), loss on extinguishment of debt of $42.4 million and $9.0 million of other income and expenses primarily related to interest income and gain on the sale of our former corporate headquarters building, along with the adjustment to our insurance reserves.

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October 31,

(In thousands)

2021

2020

Assets:

Northeast

$ 133,390 $ 107,748

Mid-Atlantic

273,073 271,867

Midwest

85,044 106,774

Southeast

257,044 248,506

Southwest

413,532 357,444